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Dani Lough
Matthew Williams
Cameron Arkwright
• The word Malaria comes from “mala”
meaning bad and “aria” meaning bad air.
• It’s an Italian word
• Malaria is an infectious disease caused
by a parasite which is transmitted from
human to human by bite of infected
female Anopheles mosquitoes.
• It’s a parasitic infection
• Monsters inside me Malaria
• The first description of malaria dates back 4000
years ago, in China.
• The disease first gained attention in the U.S.
during the construction of the Panama Canal.
• In 1906 21,000 of the 26,000 workers involved in
the construction were hospitalized due to
• It wasn’t until the 20th century that they found
out that mosquitoes were the primary vector of
malaria transmission to humans.
• After the Spanish came to the New World Indian
tribes used medicinal bark for treatment of
• Cry Cough
• Muscle or Back
• Enlarged Spleen
• Dizziness
• The symptoms are caused by the
release of merozoites into the blood
• Can begin with flu-like symptoms
Transmission of Malaria
A female Anopheles
mosquito carrying
parasites feeds on a
human and injects the
parasites in the form
of sporozoites into the
bloodstream. The
sporozoites travel to
the liver and invade
liver cells.
Transmission of Malaria
Over 5-16 days, the
sporozoites grow, divide,
and produce tens of
thousands of haploid
forms, called merozoites,
per liver cell. Some
malaria parasite species
remain dormant for
extended periods in the
liver, causing relapses
weeks or months later.
Transmission of Malaria
The merozoites exit the liver cells
and re-enter the bloodstream,
beginning a cycle of invasion of
red blood cells, asexual
replication, and release of newly
formed merozoites from the red
blood cells repeatedly over 1-3
days. This multiplication can
result in thousands of parasiteinfected cells in the host
bloodstream, leading to illness
and complications of malaria that
can last for months if not treated.
Time-frame depends on the
malaria parasite species
Transmission of Malaria
Some of the merozoites
infected blood cells leave
the cycle of asexual
multiplication. Instead of
replicating, the
merozoites in these cells
develop into sexual
forms of the parasite,
called male and female
gametocytes, that
circulate in the
Transmission of Malaria
When a mosquito bites an
infected human, it ingests the
gametocytes. In the mosquito
gut, the infected human blood
cells burst, releasing the
gametocytes, which develop
further into mature sex cells
called gametes. Male and
female gametes fuse to form
diploid zygotes, which develop
into actively moving ookinetes
that burrow into the mosquito
midgut wall and form oocysts.
Transmission of Malaria
Growth and division of each
oocyst produces thousands of
active haploid forms called
sporozoites. After 8-15 days, the
oocyst bursts, releasing
sporozoites into the body cavity of
the mosquito, from which they
travel to and invade the mosquito
salivary glands. The cycle of
human infection re-starts when
the mosquito takes a blood meal,
injecting the sporozoites from its
salivary glands into the human
bloodstream .
Time-frame depends on the
malaria parasite species
Where Malaria Originated
• China
• They found writing of the same symptoms
they now know to be the same as Malaria.
Cures or Treatment
• No effective vaccines exists
–Efforts are being made to develop
• Several Medications are available
to prevent malaria.
This is the blood that
the mosquito has
sucked up from the
Works Cited
• "Malaria."
/347.html. Remedy Health Media, LLC, n.d. Web. 25 Mar
• "Malaria."
ml. The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), n.d. Web. 25 Mar
• "History of
Malaria." Malaria Policy Center, n.d. Web. 25
Mar 2014.
• "Symptoms." WebMD, LLC, n.d. Web. 25 Mar