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Week 7 Quiz- A Traveller's
What are the four Malaria
Malaria is a ……… organism (5)
Plasmodium falciparum
P. vivax
P. ovale
P. malariae
• Malaria is an intracellular parasite
Man is the only host for Entamoeba
histolytica. This presents as
diarrhoea with…… (1)
• Amoebic dystentery- mucus and blood in
the stool
• Trophozoites also in stool
What are two differential diagnoses
for multiple petechial
haemorrhages throughout the white
matter of the brain, on autopsy? (2)
• Cerebral Malaria
• Fat embolism
What is the difference between a
definitive and intermediate hosts?
• Definitive Host- host in which parasite
reaches maturity and if applicable
reproduces sexually
• Intermediate host- host in which the
parasite only resides for a short period of
time, in an immature form
Name four reasons for Malnutrition
in underdeveloped countries. (2)
Famine: Crop failure (single staple)
Low socioeconomic
Absent breastfeeding, or prolonged
exclusive breastfeeding
• Infections that increase requirement:
giardia, TB, HIV etc.
Name the BIG 6 diseases, that
cause premature death in
developing countries (6)
• Acute Respiratory infection
• TB- increasing due to drug resistance and
• Diarrhoeal disease
• Malaria
• HIV- some reversal of success achieved
through public health
• Measles
You are working in Africa, and begin to
realise the drugs you are giving your
Malaria infected patients do not seem
to be working. What could be going
on? (2)
• The drug is not genuine- fake/counterfeit
• The drug is expired
• The drug was not actually taken by the
patient/given by the nurse
• The drug wasn’t absorbed
• Drug resistance
A patient comes to see you for some travel
advise. What do you need to know before
you can give them any advise? (4)
• Patient factors: pre-existing health
conditions, medications, allergies, reasons
for travel
• Mode of travel
• Destination
• BUT ALSO planned itinerary: rural vs
capital city, camping vs five star,
volunteering with animals/refuges vs
What are the 5 components of
Disseminated intravascular
coagulation (DIC)? (5)
Exposure of blood to procoagulants
Formation of fibrin in the circulation
Depletion of clotting factors
End-organ damage
Fever plays an important role in our body’s
defences against infection. What are some
of the benefits of a fever? (5)
Activates T-cell production
Increases effectiveness of some IFN
Limits the replication of some viruses/ bacteria
Increases phagocytosis
Increased Ig production
Name four of the organisms
responsible for Travellers
Diarrhoea? (2)
Name 5 of the Diseases, covered
by Australia's National
Immunisation Schedule (5)
Hepatitis B
Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis
Haemophilus influenza type b
Measles, mumps, rubella
Meningococcal C
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Name an Infectious Disease that
can increase with
urbanisation/urban crowding (2)
• Dengue Fever – due to water collecting
trash  increase mosquito breeding
• Cholera- due to increased water contamination
• Cutaneous leishmaniasis- proximity to sand fly
The Malaria lifecycle can be broken down into three
phases. Describe the three phases. At which stage are
symptoms produced? At which stage is it infectious?
Mosquito: in mosquito gut (Transmission)
– Gamete zygote  ookinete oocyst
– When the mosquito takes a blood meal, sporozoites are released into the human's
Hepatic: (pre-erythrocytic)
– within minutes sporozoites attach to and invade liver cells by binding to the hepatocyte
– Multiple rapidly into merozoites (asexual, haploid forms, eventually causing hepatocyte
Blood (erythrocytic)
– Once released from the liver, merozoites bind to the surface of red cells
– Within the red cells the parasites grow in a membrane-bound digestive vacuole,
hydrolyzing haemoglobin through secreted enzymes.
– Develops in trophozoite in the red cell (defined by the presence of a single chromatin
mass) then to a schizont which has multiple chromatin masses, each of which develops
into a merozoite.
– Red Blood cell lyse, releasing merozoites that can infect additional red cells.
– Some however develop into sexual forms called gametocytes that infect the mosquito
when it takes its blood meal (Transmission)
No apparent symptoms until the parasite multiplies in the blood. Cannot reinfect
mozzie until gametocytes developed ie. after symptoms start