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 Three
principle organs of seed plants are
roots, stems, and leaves
 Roots
absorb water and dissolved nutrients
Anchor plants into ground
Hold soil in place & prevent erosion
Transport water and nutrients to rest of plant
 Stems
Support system for plant body
Transport system that carries nutrients
Defends and protects plants
 Leaves
Main photosynthetic systems
Broad, flat surface helps increase amount
of sunlight absorbed
Must contain subsystems to protect against
water loss
 Plant
tissue systems
Plants consist of 3 main tissue systems
 Dermal
tissue (outside of plant, “skin”)
 Vascular tissue (“bloodstream”)
 Ground tissue (everything else)
 Dermal
Outer covering of plant
Epidermal cells
Covered with thick, waxy layer that
protects against water loss and injury
Guard cells located
on the underside of leaves
 Regulates water loss and gas exchange
 Surround Stomata- porelike openings in the
underside of the leaf that allow carbon
dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of
the cell
 Stomata
open and close in response to
changes in water pressure within the guard
 Guard cells respond to changes in the
environment helping the plant to maintain
Regulate stomata to balance water loss with
rates of photosynthesis
 Vascular
Forms a transport system that moves water
and nutrients throughout the plant
Xylem and Phloem
 Both
made of networks of hollow connected
cells that carry fluids throughout the plant
 Xylem
Carries water upward from the root to every
part of the plant
Tracheids- key cells in xylem
 Hollow
cells with thick cell walls that resist
 Connected end to end like a series of drinking
Vessel Elements- stacked in columns
 Phloem
Transports solutions of
nutrients and
carbohydrates produced
by photosynthesis from the
site of sugar production
(source) to the site where
sugar is used (sink).
Sieve tube elements- main
cells in phloem
 Both
forms of vascular tissue can move
fluids through the plant body, even
against the flow of gravity.
 Sap-
the fluid that moves through the
xylem and the phloem
 Ground
The cells that lie between dermal and
vascular tissue
Mesophyll tissue
 the
site of most of the plants photosynthesis
 Transpiration-
the loss of water through the
leaves of plants
Transpiration increases when stomata are
Decrease when stomata close
 Replaced
by water drawn into the leaf
through xylem vessels in the vascular tissu
 The
combination of root pressure,
capillary action, and transpiration
provides enough force to move water
through the xylem tissue of plants
 Capillary
action- the tendency of water
to rise in a thin tube
Cohesion- attraction of water molecules to
each other
Adhesion- attraction of water molecules to
other substances
Water molecules are attracted to each
other and to the walls of a tube, causing
water to rise
 Osmotic
pressure keeps a plant’s leaves
and stems rigid
 High transpiration rates can lead to
wilting- without the pressure inside plant
cells, the cell walls bend inward and the
plant wilts
Stomata then close, which helps the plants
to conserve water