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Transcript
Chapter 16
Human
Circulatory System
Transport
zInvolves
the absorption and
circulation of materials
throughout an organism
Human Circulatory
System
z Closed
circulatory system- blood
is always in blood vessels.
z Heart which pumps blood.
z Network of blood vessels which
carry blood to and from all cells
of the body.
Human Circulatory System
(I) Three Kinds of
Blood Vessels
1. Arteries
2. Veins
3. Capillaries
Arteries
z Thick-walled
z Smooth
muscle
z Transports blood away
from heart
z Carries oxygenated
blood (high levels of O2)
z Arteries divide into
smaller vessels known
as arterioles
Arteries
z Thick-walled
z Smooth
muscle
z Transports blood away
from heart
z Carries oxygenated
blood (high levels of O2)
z Arteries divide into
smaller vessels known
as arterioles
Veins
z Thin-walled
z Transports
blood to the heart
z Carries deoxygenated blood
z Contain valves which help prevent the
backflow of blood
z Divide into smaller vessels known as venules
Capillaries
z Very
thin-walled
(one cell thick)
z Site for the exchange
of materials between
the blood and body
tissue (cells)
z Arterioles and venules
are connected by
capillaries
Capillaries
z
z
z
Very thin-walled
(one cell thick)
Site for the exchange of
materials between the
blood and body tissue
(cells)
Arterioles and venules
are connected by
capillaries
Capillaries
z
z
z
Very thin-walled
(one cell thick)
Site for the exchange of
materials between the
blood and body tissue
(cells)
Arterioles and venules
are connected by
capillaries
(II)
z Composed
Heart
of cardiac muscle
z It is a 4-chambered pump composed
of 2 atria and 2 ventricles
z The ventricles have thicker walls
than the atria
z The heart pumps blood through the
arteries creating a blood pressure
Human Heart
Human Heart
Superior Vena Cava
zBrings
deoxygenated blood
from the upper portion of the
body and into the right
atrium
Inferior Vena Cava
zBrings
deoxygenated blood
from the lower portion of the
body and into the right
atrium
Right Atrium
zReceives
blood from the
inferior and superior vena
cava and pumps it into the
right atrium
Valves
zA-V
valve- separates the
atrium from the ventricle
zSemi-lunar valve- separates
ventricles from the arteries
Right Ventricle
zReceives
blood from the right
atrium and pumps it into the
pulmonary artery
Pulmonary Artery
zReceives
blood from the right
ventricle and transports it to
the lungs
Pulmonary Vein
zReceives
oxygenated blood
from the lungs and transports
it to the left atrium
Left Atrium
zReceives
blood from the
pulmonary vein and pumps it
into the left ventricle
Left Ventricle
zReceives
blood from the left
atrium and pumps it into the
aorta
Aorta
zMajor
artery of the body
zReceives blood from the left
ventricle and transports it to
the rest of the body
Septum
zSeparates
the heart into a left side
and a right side
zLeft side contains oxygenated blood
zRight side contains deoxygenated
blood
(III)
Types of
Circulation
Sphygmomanometer
z Instrument
used to measure the
pressure of the blood in the
artery of the arm
Ex: 120/80
120 = systolic pressure
80 = diastolic pressure
(IV) Heartbeat Cycle
z Diastole
(relaxation)- is the period
when the ventricles are filling with
blood. The A-V valve is open and
blood flows from the atrium to the
ventricle
z Systole (contraction)- is the period
when the ventricle pumps blood out
of the heart. A-V valve closes and
the semi-lunar valve opens
1. Pulmonary Circulation
zThe
pathway from which
blood flows from the heart Æ
to the lungs Æ and back to
the heart
( R.V. Æ Pulm. Artery Æ
Lungs Æ Pulm. Vein Æ L.A.)
2. Systemic Circulation
zThe
pathway that carries
blood from the heart to all
parts of the body with the
exception of the lungs
3. Coronary Circulation
zMuscle
tissue of the heart is
supplied with blood through a
system of coronary blood
vessels
zCoronary arteries- supply
oxygenated blood to the
muscle tissue of the heart
Disorders
of the
Circulatory System
Cardiovascular
Diseases
zAre
diseases of the heart
and blood vessels
High Blood Pressure
zIncreased
pressure in the
arteries due to stress, diet,
cigarette smoking, and aging
zCan lead to damage of the
lining of arteries and
weakening of the heart muscle
Heart Attacks
Two Types
1. Coronary Thrombosis
2. Angina Pectoris
Coronary Thrombosis
zBlockage
of the coronary
artery resulting in oxygen
deficiency in the heart muscle
Coronary Thrombosis
Angina Pectoris
zNarrowing
of the coronary
artery causing an inadequate
supply of oxygen to the heart
muscle