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Aim: Why were the Crusades a
turning point in history?
Key Terms
Coach Smith
In the seventh century, Muslims conquered
Coach Smith
Muslim Conquest
 In the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine.
 Initially, the Muslim conquerors allowed Jews and Christians
to freely enter the Holy Land.
 As time passed, some Muslim rulers were less tolerant.
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wanted to visit
the land where
Jesus was born.
When a person
travels for
purposes, he
is a pilgrim.
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Rumors and Intolerance
 As the years passed, reports spread that some Muslims had killed
Christian pilgrims and destroyed churches.
 European Christians were also increasingly intolerant of Muslims
controlling the Holy Land.
 As tensions increased, war seemed inevitable.
Coach Smith
In 1095,
Pope Urban II
called for
a crusade, or
war, against
the Muslims.
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Pope Urban II
 In 1095, Pope Urban II, the head of the Roman Catholic
Church, called for a crusade, or war, against the Muslims.
 Ultimately, the Christians fought many crusades against the
 However, Christians never permanently regained control of
the Holy Land.
Coach Smith
For almost 200 years – from 1096 to 1291European crusaders went to the Holy Land.
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Many Europeans
Joined the
Crusades. Some
joined for the
promise of Heaven.
Others joined
hoping for wealth.
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 Crusaders were European Christians who heeded the Pope’s
call to regain the Holy Land.
 Crusaders joined for many reasons.
 Some joined for the promise of Heaven, others for wealth,
and still others for adventure.
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often wore
a cross
on their
Coach Smith
The Effects of the Crusades
 Historians frequently call the Crusades “a successful failure.”
 While Europeans never regained permanent control of the Holy
Land and many people were killed, cultural diffusion increased.
 Europeans began to trade with the Middle East.
Coach Smith
Europeans learned about Arab art,
architecture, medicine, and mathematics.
Coach Smith
Questions for Reflection:
 Why were Christians upset that Muslims had gained control
of the Holy Land?
Define pilgrim.
What is a crusade?
Why did the Pope call for a Crusade?
Why do historians call the Crusades “a successful failure”?
What was an effect of the Crusades?
Coach Smith
A. Choose one of the following:
 Make a pamphlet or advertisement recruiting for the
 History vs. Hollywood:The Crusades is one of the most
important events of the last one thousand years. There are
many ways to get the message of the Crusades across and the
movie: The Kingdom of Heaven attempts to do just that.
How accurate is the movie to the actual Crusades? Watch the
film and find THREE historical accuracies and THREE
Hollywood additions to the film.
Coach Smith