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Transcript
CHAPTER 34: DEPONENT VERBS; ABLATIVES WITH SPECIAL DEPONENTS
DEPONENT VERBS LOOK PASSIVE BUT ARE TRANSLATED ACTIVELY!!
DICTIONARY ENTRIES:
You can tell a verb is DEPONENT by its dictionary entry: it’s still listed: 1st sg, Pres.(Deponent) Indicative;
Pres. (Deponent) Infinitive; Perfect (Deponent) Participle. The only differences are: the 1st person singular
ends with ‘or’ ; Infinitive is a Passive Infinitive; and there is no Perfect Active stem (3rd p.p.)
EXAMPLES (by conjugation)
1st: hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum
2nd: fateor, fatērī, fassus sum
3rd: loquor, loquī, locutus sum
4th: molior, molīrī, mollitus sum
3rd-io: patior, patī, passus sum
DEPONENT VERBS ARE NEVER-EVER TRANSLATED PASSIVELY!!
1
2
PRESENT
3
4
hortor
fateor
loquor
molior
hortāris/hortāre fatēris/fatēre loqueris/loquere molīris/molīre
hortātur
fatētur
loquitur
molītur
hortāmur
fatēmur
loquimur
molīmur
hortāminī
fatēminī
loquiminī
molīminī
hortantur
fatentur
loquuntur
moliuntur
IMPERATIVE
sg: hortāre!
fatēre!
loquere!
molīre!
pl: hortāminī! fatēminī!
loquiminī!
molīminī!
1
i urge
you urge
he urges
we urge
y’ll urge
they urge
2
ENGLISH
3
i admit
you admit
he admits
we admit
y’ll admit
they admit
i speak
you speak
he speaks
we speak
y’ll speak
they speak
4
i strain at
you strain at
he strains at
we strain at
y’ll strain at
they strain at
**SEE PAGE 456 OF GRAMMAR APPENDIX FOR COMPLETE CONJUGATIONS!!!!
Deponent Verbs conjugate exactly the same way as ‘normal’ verbs do in the Passive Voice. They can
be SUBJUNCTIVE and can be conjugated in ALL TENSES!!
TRANSLATION:
There is no such thing as a Passive translation of a Deponent Verb. THUS: the Perfect Passive Participle (i.e.
the 3rd principle part of a Deponent Verb) is translated actively.
hortatus, -a, -um: having urged
fassus, -a, -um: having admitted
locutus, -a, -um: having spoken
***1 clue that a verb is Deponent: it has a DIRECT OBJECT!!!!!!!!!
ABLATIVES WITH SPECIAL DEPONENTS
Some deponent verbs naturally take Ablative Direct Objects instead of Accusative Direct Objects. By far most
common is the verb utor, utī, usus sum to use (which makes sense because you use the means by which you do
something),
EXAMPLE: I write with (by means of) a pencil.
vs.
I use a pencil
pencil would be Ablative in both examples
Other verbs that do this (not in Wheelock but still good to know):
fruor to enjoy
fungor to perform
potior to possess
vescor to eat