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Accelerated English II
What is Propaganda?
Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the
attitude of a community toward some cause or position by presenting only one
side of an argument. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a
wide variety of media in order to create the chosen result in audience
As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda, in its most basic
sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience. Propaganda
often presents facts selectively (thus possibly lying by omission) to encourage
a particular synthesis, or uses loaded messages to produce an emotional
rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result
is a change of the attitude toward the subject in the target audience to further
a political agenda. Propaganda can be used as a form of political warfare.
Types of Propaganda
Name-Calling: It is the use of
derogatory language or words
that carry a negative connotation
when describing an enemy. The
propaganda attempts to arouse
prejudice among the public by
labeling the target something that
the public dislikes. Often, name
calling is employed using
sarcasm and ridicule, and shows
up often in political cartoons or
Types of Propaganda
Types of Propaganda
Glittering Generalities: Glittering
generalities was one of the seven main
propaganda techniques identified by the
Institute for Propaganda Analysis in
1938. It also occurs very often in politics
and political propaganda. Glittering
generalities are words that have different
positive meaning for individual subjects,
but are linked to highly valued concepts.
When these words are used, they
demand approval without thinking,
simply because such an important
concept is involved.
Types of Propaganda
Types of Propaganda
Euphemisms: Essentially
using bland words in the
place of unpleasant
business. In more
controversial uses, it can
be reversed to use bland
language in suggestive
Types of Propaganda
Transfer: It is an attempt to
make the subject view a certain
item in the same way as they
view another item, to link the two
in the subjects mind. In politics,
transfer is most often used to
transfer blame or bad feelings
from one politician to another of
his friends or party members, or
even to the party itself.
Types of Propaganda
Testimonial: Testimonials
are quotations or
endorsements, in or out of
context, which attempt to
connect a famous or
respectable person with a
product or item.
Testimonials are very
closely connected to the
transfer technique, in that
an attempt is made to
connect an agreeable
person to another item
Types of Propaganda
Types of Propaganda
Plain Folk: An attempt by the
propagandist to convince the
public that his views reflect
those of the common person
and that they are also
working for the benefit of the
common person.
Types of PRopaganda
Bandwagon: Bandwagon is one
of the most common
techniques in both wartime and
peacetime and plays an
important part in modern
advertising. Bandwagon is an
appeal to the subject to follow
the crowd, to join in because
others are doing so as well.
Bandwagon propaganda is,
essentially, trying to convince
the subject that one side is the
winning side, because more
people have joined it.
Types of Propaganda
Fear: When a propagandist
warns members of her
audience that disaster will
result if they do not follow a
particular course of action,
she is using the fear appeal.
By playing on the audience's
deep-seated fears,
practitioners of this
technique hope to redirect
attention away from the
merits of a particular
proposal and toward steps
that can be taken to reduce
the fear.
Types of Propaganda