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Transcript
Biomedical Therapies
AP Psychology
Chapter 17: Therapies
Ms. Elkin
Drug Therapy:
Anti-Anxiety
Anti-anxiety Medication
– Depresses central nervous system activity
– Should be used with psychotherapy
– Specific Drugs:
• Xanax
• Ativan
– Criticisms:
• Masks the problem, not a solution
• Can create psychological dependence
Drug Therapy:
Anti-Depressant
Antidepressant
• For depression, drug therapy is most effective
when paired with psychotherapy
• SSRIs: Selective-Serotonin-Reuptake-Inhibitors
– Prozac
– Partially blocks the reabsorption of serotonin
– Elevates arousal and mood
• Dual-Action Antidepressants
– Work by blocking the reabsorption of norepinephrine
and serotonin.
– Side effects: dry mouth, weight gain, hypertension, or
dizzy spells.
Antidepressants
• Antidepressants
• Newer Mechanisms
–
–
–
–
–
Wellbutrin
Serzone
Desyrel
Effexor
remeron
• Other Classifications
– Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (stops the breakdown of
certain neurotransmitters)MAOIs
– Tricyclics: inhibit the nerve cell’s ability to reuptake
neurotransmitters
Drug Therapy:
Mood Stabilizers
(for Bipolar Disorder)
Mood Stabilizers
• Mood-Stabilizing (Bipolar)
– Lithium
• Emotional highs and lows
(manic-depressive episodes)
stabilize
• Signs of more severe toxicity
include:
– Giddiness
Mild shakiness, especially in the hands
– Blurred vision
Thirst
– Ringing in the ears
Increased or frequent urination
(tinnitus)
– Severe shakiness
Diarrhea
– Seizures
Vomiting
• signs of mild to moderate lithium toxicity:
–
–
–
–
–
– Drowsiness
– Muscle weakness
– Coordination problems
– Depakote
Drug Therapy:
Schizophrenia &
other Psychotic Disorders
Antipsychotics
• Uses
– Used to calm
psychotic patients
(schizophrenics)
• Dopamine blockers;
reduce positive
symptoms
• Side Effects:
– Sluggishness, tremors,
twitches
– Tardive Dyskinesia:
involuntary movement of
facial muscles
– Video
Antipsychotics
– Specific Drugs:
• Thorazine
• Clozapine
– New Generation Drugs:
• Rispedal
• Zyprexa
• Fewer side effects, but
increased risk of
obesity and diabetes.
Brain Stimulation
• Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
– Using electricity to shock the brain, thereby
calming the neural centers where overactivity
produces depression
– Patient is anesthetized (unconscious)
– Given a muscle relaxant
– Their brain is shocked with about 100 volts
– Side effects: memory loss
– Effective for severe depression that hasn’t been
responsive to medication
ECT: One Flew Over the
Cuckoo’s Nest
Psychosurgery
• Lobotomy:
– cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes
with the limbic system
– Used with patients with:
• Violent symptoms
• Psychotic symptoms
• Hyperactive symptoms
– Rarely used today
Psychosurgery