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SPORT ETHICS "To educate a person in the mind but not the morals is to educate a menace to society." –Teddy Roosevelt DEFINITIONS Ethics is the study of morals or character; a study of the principles of human duty or the study of all moral qualities that distinguish an individual relative to others. Moral pertains to an individual’s motives, intentions, and actions as right or wrong, virtuous or vicious, or good or bad. Values are anything having relative worth. Moral values are the relative worth that is placed on some virtuous behavior. Principles are universal rules of conduct that identify what kinds of actions, intentions, and motives are valued. MORAL REASONING PROCESS Moral Reasoning is the systematic process of evaluating personal values and developing a consistent and impartial set of moral principles by which to live. Moral Knowing is the cognitive phase of learning about moral issues and how to resolve them. Moral Feeling is the basis of what we believe about ourselves, such as self-esteem, and society, such as empathy for others Moral Acting is how we act based on what we know and value. The Reason for Feelings Why do we have them? What is their purpose? Why are they different from one person to another? WHAT ARE RATIONALIZATIONS FOR UNETHICAL BEHAVIORS IN SPORT? There is no rule against it. Everyone else does it. This action is not unethical because no one will ever know about it. Circumstances require acting in this way. MORAL JUSTIFICATION The unethical action was really ethical; that is, muddy the waters and make the wrong look right. The unethical action was a non-issue in the sense that the action caused no harm to another individual or was unseen by an official; that is, no foul, no harm. A rule was violated but the amount of good accomplished overshadowed the small amount of harm that occurred; that is, the end justifies the means. ETHICS AND SPORTSMANSHIP “Ethics is a matter of being good (character) and doing right (action).” “Sportsmanship is a matter of being good (character) and doing right (action) in sports.” “The majority of acts that we consider bad in sports and call ‘unsportsmanlike’ are bad precisely because they are unfair, dishonest, disrespectful, or against the rules.” WHAT DOES SPORTSMANSHIP LOOK LIKE? Playing fair Following the letter and spirit of the rules Respecting the judgments of officials Treating opponents with respect Shaking hands at the end of the game Never running up the score Never cheating Never taunting GAMESMANSHIP What is difference between this and unsportsmanlike conduct? Where does “the line” exist Is the line different in different sports or at different levels in sports PROBLEMS WITH MORAL REASONING The longer athletes participate in sport, the lower their moral reasoning. Males have lower levels of moral reasoning than do females. Team sport athletes show lower levels of moral reasoning than do individual sport athletes. The moral reasoning of interscholastic athletes is less consistent, impartial, and reflective than is that of non-athletes. THE MORAL ETHOS OF SPORT Is an intentional rule violation congruent with the moral ethos of sport? Is a tactical rule violation, or the breaking of the rules on purpose to gain a benefit even though there is an associated penalty, ethical? Is this an ethical way to attempt to secure a victory? Is cheating, which is an intentional deception or circumvention of the rules that were established to maintain fairness, ethical? Is the intent of sport to get away with things to gain an advantage? Are rule violations ethical if they are not caught and penalized? If rule violations are attempted and penalized, then are these rule violations deemed to be acceptable? ARE THERE ETHICAL ISSUES IN YOUTH SPORTS ABOUT THESE? Cutting a child trying out for a sports team Playing the best players (some do not play) Keeping the best players in the “key” positions Competing for championships and trophies Requiring a child to play a sport Specializing in one sport Offering teams for one gender only ARE THESE ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORTS? Requiring athletes to pass all subjects Specializing in one sport Treating male athletes preferentially Playing while injured Using drugs to enhance performance Teaching athletes (by coaches) how to break sport rules to gain an advantage Giving athletes money or other benefits Taunting and gamesmanship The World Record Holders in the 800m Who are these People Baseball Mark McGuire Jose Canseco Barry Bonds Other Cases Dennis Mitchell 1980s East German Vitamins Karin Koing (swimming) Heidi and Andreas Krieger (Shot Put) Balco Silken Laumann So why did/do they do it Spectators Spectator violence often rises when the sport is violent, such as at football or rugby games. Soccer fans have often gone to extremes (1998 World Cup Soccer tournament). Do parents cross the line? What about with their own children? Violence Against Officials and Coaches Fans who are too serious about the outcome of a game are quick to blame the coaching and officiating when their team is performing poorly. Example: Baseball coach Tom Gamboa, Kansas City Royals attacked by two fans in September 2002. Parents attacking coaches and officials has been more common. Example: Hockey parent Thomas Junta, who killed a fellow parent at a pickup game in 2000. Violence Against Athletes Athletes can be victims of violence at the hands of fans. Example includes tennis star Monica Seles, who was attacked on the court by a fan in 1993. Another example involved Colombian soccer player Andres Escobar, killed after scoring a goal against his own team in the 1994 World Cup. Athletes often suffer from verbal abuse at the hands of their coach. Agree 1 Slightly Agree 2 Slightly Disagree 3 Disagree 4 Teamwork is important for winning. 18. I must respect my opponent to play my best. I would taunt my opponent. A team must have a good coach to win.19. Basketball is a non-contact sport. 20. I would trash-talk my opponent. I would spit on my opponent. 21. Soccer is a non-contact sport. Luck is a part of winning. 22. I compliment an opponent for a good play. It is important to shake hands with my opponent after a game. 23. It is “OK” to run up the score against an inferior opponent. 7. I have never been in a game where any rules were violated. 24. Basketball players are better “athletes” than baseball players. 8. Referees’ decisions will affect a game’s result. 25. I would "bend the rules" to win. 9. Intramurals are a waste of time. 26. It is not whether you win or lose, but how you play the game. 10. I would deliberately injure my opponent to help me win. 27. It is not up to players to enforce rules (it’s the referee’s job). 11. A team must have a “star player” to be a winning team. 28. Integrity is an important attribute for a winning team. 12. Respecting my opponent gives me a better chance of winning. 29. Intercollegiate athletics are bad for a university. 13. The team that prepares the best should win the game. 30. I would retaliate if I was given a “cheap shot” by my opponent. 14. “Winning isn’t everything, it is the only thing.” 31. Skill in a sport is more important than hard work. 15. I have never seen or heard someone taunt or trash-talk an opponent. 32. I play fair. 16. Respect is an important attribute for 33. Being a good sport (showing a winning team. sportsmanship) is important to winning. 17. Football is a more violent sport than 34. “Every student an athlete, every student ice hockey. challenged.” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.