CHAPTER 4 ANCIENT INDIA MRS. JACOBS 2016 LESSON 1: THE INDUS AND GANGES RIVER VALLEYS VOCABULARY • SUBCONTINENT: a large landmass that just out from a continent • MONSOON: a strong wind that blows across East Asia at certain times of the year • CITADEL: a fortress in a city • MIGRATE: to move from one place to another area • CASTE: a social class of people LESSON 1: INDIA’S GEOGRAPHIC SETTING • Located on the Asian continent, India is separated from the rest of the world by a large wall, aka the Himalaya Mountains, the highest mountain range in the world. • Geographers refer to India as a subcontinent, a large landmass that juts out from a continent, because of it’s kite-shaped land mass that juts out into the Indian Ocean. • Contact with the rest of the world was limited due to India’s geography, providing them protection: – Himalaya and Hindu Kush mountains – The Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, and Arabian Sea LESSON 1: INDIA’S GEOGRAPHIC SETTING CONT. • India’s climate is dominated by monsoons, strong winds that blow across the region at certain times of the year. • From Oct. to May, the winter monsoon blows from the northeast spreading dry air. • Middle of June, the wind blows from the Indian Ocean, spreading rains that drench the plains and river valleys daily. • Monsoons provide life-giving rain to the rivers, if it is late or weak, farmers lose their crops, causing famine; too much rain, and the rivers cause deadly floods. LESSON 1: INDIA’S GEOGRAPHIC SETTING CONT. • Although mountains separate India from the rest of the world, there are openings called passes that serve as a highway for migration and invasion through the Indus and Ganges River Valley regions. The Ganges River flows from the The Indus River crosses the Himalayas and empties into the Himalayas into the Bay of Bengal. Arabian Sea. Both rivers make it possible for farming in the river valleys. LESSON 1: LIFE IN THE INDUS RIVER VALLEY • Early farmers harvested a surplus of wheat and other grains. • With a surplus of food, populations grew forming cities. • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, both located in present-day Pakistan are two cities that developed along the banks of the Indus River. • Mohenjo-Daro is the larger of the two cities. LESSON 1: LIFE IN THE INDUS RIVER VALLEY CONT. • Because of floods, Mohenjo-Daro was built above ground level. • The city’s highest point served as a citadel, or fortress. • Built on a mound of dirt, the citadel was probably enclosed by a brick wall protecting the cities most important buildings, including a store house for grain and a bath house. • Unlike most other cities of this time, Mohenjo-Daro had a drainage systems that carried waste from homes and public buildings away from the city. • Canals helped to control flooding by catching the overflow from the Indus River, which often flooded. LESSON 1: LIFE IN THE INDUS RIVER VALLEY CONT. • Life in Mohenjo-Daro – Merchants and artisans sold products from shops • Artisans made jewelry and cotton clothing – Carts loaded with grain rolled through the city – Traders came far as far away as Mesopotamia – Citizens lived in homes that opened onto courtyards LESSON 1: LIFE IN THE INDUS RIVER VALLEY CONT. • Life in Mohenjo-Daro – Children played with toys and pets – Adults enjoyed games and music – Language is a mystery – Writings appear on seals, but experts haven’t deciphered it yet. LESSON 1: LIFE IN THE INDUS RIVER VALLEY CONT. • Life in Mohenjo-Daro – Government is unknown – Religion is unknown • No royal tombs or great temples have been found, but evidence found in city ruins suggest that people had a number of gods • Around 2000 B.C., Indus Valley farmers began to abandon their land. – Climate change could have caused the fertile soil to change into desert – Great earthquakes could have caused floods destroying the canals. – Without food people would have had to leave their cities. LESSON 1: A NEW CULTURE ARISES • Between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C., new comers, Aryans, meaning “noble” or “highborn”, from the north, entered the valley and eventually gained power throughout the region. • They migrated, or moved, from their homes in Central Asia. • They drove horse-drawn chariots that helped them gain power overwhelming their enemy’s slow-moving foot soldiers and settled people. LESSON 1: A NEW CULTURE ARISES CONT. • Local people adopted the language and some of the beliefs of the Aryans, developing a new culture. • The Aryan culture, first developed in the northern Indus Valley and moved into the eastern Ganges River Valley. • Tools and weapons made from iron came about in 800s B.C. • They were able to clear out areas of thick rain forests of the northeast with iron axes, building farms, villages, and even cities. LESSON 1: A NEW CULTURE ARISES CONT. • Most of what we know about Aryan life came from religious books called Vedas, which means knowledge. • Vedas tell us that Aryans were: – Herders – Warriors – Lived in temporary villages – Often moved around, nomadic LESSON 1: A NEW CULTURE ARISES CONT. – had 3 social classes: • Priests, called Brahmans, performed religious services and composed hymns and prayers • Warriors and Nobles • Artisans and Merchants – Gradually a low-ranking 4th class was formed • farmer, laborers, and servants • Social classes also known as caste system, or class system, performed special duties. – People always had to stay in their parents’ caste. – They had to do the same job as their parents. LESSON 2: HINDUISM IN ANCIENT INDIA VOCABULARY • BRAHMAN: a single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything • AVATAR: a representation of a Hindu god or goddess in human or animal form • REINCARNATION: the rebirth of the soul in the body of another living being • DHARMA: the religious moral duties of Hindus • AHIMSA: the Hindu idea of non-violence LESSON 2: THE BEGINNINGS OF HINDUISM • As Aryan culture mixed with other cultures, new ideas and beliefs became part of the Vedas (religious texts). • From the blending of these ideas and beliefs came one of the oldest living religions, Hinduism. • As Hinduism developed, it absorbed many beliefs from other religions. • Hindus believe that because people are different, they need many different ways of approaching god. LESSON 2: THE BEGINNINGS OF HINDUISM CONT. • Hinduism is one of the world’s major religions for over 1.8 billion people world wide, yet Hinduism is unlike other major world religions. • Hinduism has no one single founder. • Hinduism is polytheistic, however, they believe in one single spiritual power called brahman, which lives in everything. LESSON 2: THE BEGINNINGS OF HINDUISM CONT. • The gods and goddesses stand for different parts of brahman: – Brahma, the creator, was born from an egg, but not as widely worshipped as Vishnu and Shiva – Vishnu, the preserver, a kindly god who is concerned with the welfare of humans, visits Earth often in different forms to guide humans or protect them from disaster – Shiva, the destroyer, is not concerned with human matters, but is very powerful and responsible for both the creative and destructive forces of the universe. • Shiva developed the god Rudra, the “wielder of the thunderbolt” LESSON 2: THE BEGINNINGS OF HINDUISM CONT. • Hindu gods and goddesses take on many different forms called avatars, the presentation of Hindu god or goddess in human or animal form. • Hindu gods have their own families. • Many Hindus worship Shiva’s wife, the goddess Shakti who plays a role in human life. – Shakti is like her husband, both a destroyer and creator, both kind and cruel. LESSON 2: THE TEACHINGS OF HINDUISM • One of the Hindu religious texts is the Upanishads, “means sitting near a teacher”, written in a question format. – A student might ask a teacher, “Who created the world?” – The teacher replies, “Brahman is the creator, the universal soul.” – The students replies, “Can you describe brahman?” – The teacher replies, “It is too complicated for humans to understand. Brahman has no physical form.” LESSON 2: THE TEACHINGS OF HINDUISM CONT. • One important idea in the Upanishads is reincarnation, the rebirth of the soul. • Hindus believe that when a person dies, his soul is reborn in the body of another living thing, and that every living thing has a soul, just as other Asians believe. • According to Hindu belief, the actions of a person in this life affects his/her fate in the next life. • Good behavior is rewarded; bad behavior is punished. LESSON 2: THE TEACHINGS OF HINDUISM CONT. • Faithful followers of Hinduism will be reborn into a higher position, those who have been bad, will be reborn into a lower caste, or may even return as an animal. • If a person leads a perfect life, he/she may be freed from the cycle of death and rebirth. • As a result, the person’s soul becomes one (united) with brahman. LESSON 2: THE TEACHINGS OF HINDUISM CONT. • To become united with the one spirit and escape the cycle of death and rebirth, a person must obey his dharma, the religious and moral duties of each person. • The duties depend on the person’ class, age, and occupation. • In Hinduism, it is a man’s duty to protect the women of his family, and it’s a ruler’s duty to protect his people. LESSON 2: THE PRACTICE OF HINDUISM • Another important idea of Hinduism is ahimsa, or nonviolence. • To Hindus people and living things are part of brahman and therefore must be treated with respect, the reason many Hindus do not eat meat and try to avoid harming living things. LESSON 2: THE PRACTICE OF HINDUISM CONT. • Many Hindus know yoga as a physical activity, a system of special exercises and breathing. • Hindus believe yoga exercises help free the soul from the cares of the world. • This way the soul may unite with brahman. • Yoga means “union”. • There are many yogas that may be used as paths to brahman. – – – – Raja Yoga: physical activity, breathing and relaxing (exercise) Karma Yoga: selfless deeds, giving to the poor, etc. Jnana Yoga: knowledge, learning sacred writings, etc. Bhakti Yoga: devotion, honoring a personal god LESSON 3: THE BEGINNINGS OF BUDDHISM VOCABULARY • MEDITATE: to focus the mind inward in order to find spiritual awareness • NIRVANA: the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires • MISSIONARY: a person who spreads his or her religious beliefs to others LESSON 3: THE BEGINNINGS OF BUDDHISM • A young prince, Siddhartha Gautama, once lived a life of luxury in his palace in northern India. Because he was surrounded with beauty and youth, he had never witnesses old age, sickness, or death. • Then one day, around the age of 30, the prince traveled outside the palace walls. What he saw changed his life. He met a bend and tired old man, a man who was very sick, and a dead body, as it was being carried to a funeral. • This suffering and death troubled the young prince greatly. He wondered why there was so much pain and misery in the world. He decided he must change his life in order to find the answer. • He gave up his wealth, his family, and his life of ease in order to find the cause of human suffering. What he discovered after 7 years of wandering led to the beginnings of a major world religion: Buddhism. LESSON 3: THE BUDDHA AND HIS TEACHINGS • As Gautama traveled in the 500s B.C., he sought answers to his questions about the meaning of life. • At first, Gautama studied with Hindu philosophers, but he could not accept the idea that only priests could pass on knowledge. • Gautama decided to stop looking outward for the cause of suffering and find understanding in his own mind, so he began to meditate, to focus the mind inward in order to find spiritual awareness. LESSON 3: THE BUDDHA AND HIS TEACHINGS CONT. • Buddhist traditions say that Buddha fasted and meditated under a fig tree for 49 days, and he found the answers he sought. • For the next 45 years, Gautama traveled across India and shared his knowledge attracting many followers. • His followers called him the Buddha, “Enlightened One.” • His teachings became known as Buddhism. LESSON 3: THE BUDDHA AND HIS TEACHINGS CONT. • Buddhism teaches people to follow the Eightfold Path, aka the Middle Way. • By following this path, a person avoids a life of extreme pleasure or extreme unhappiness. • Buddha believed that selfish desires for power, wealth, and pleasure causes human suffering; giving up these selfish desires, one can become free from suffering. • To overcome selfish desires, Buddhists must learn to be wise, to behave correctly, and to develop their minds. LESSON 3: THE BUDDHA AND HIS TEACHINGS CONT. • To find the Middle Way, Buddha taught that people must: – act unselfishly toward others and treat people fairly – tell the truth at all times – avoid violence and the killing of any living thing • If people follow Buddha’s path, their suffering will end, and they will find nirvana, lasting peace. – By reaching nirvana, people will be released of the cycle of reincarnation. – Buddhism also taught that all people are equal, anyone no matter the caste, could follow the path to nirvana. – Buddha encouraged his followers to establish monasteries where people would learn, meditate, and teach. – He also urged monks to become missionaries, people who spread their religious beliefs to others. LESSON 3: BUDDHISM INSIDE AND OUTSIDE INDIA • After Buddha’s death, his teachings spread all over India, but they didn’t last in the land of his birth. • Hinduism gradually regained favor among those in power, but Buddhism and Hinduism existed side by side. • As they existed side by side, both religions shared a number of basic ideas: – – – – It’s wrong to harm living creatures Valued nonviolence Believe in dharma Believe in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) • Buddhist missionaries and traders carried Buddha’s message throughout Asia, first in China, then to Korea Japan, and Vietnam.