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Chapter 42: Circulation and Gas Exchange
42.02 Open vs. Closed Circulatory Systems
42.03 Types of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
Fig 42-3. Generalized circulatory schemes of vertebrates. Red symbolizes oxygen-rich blood, and blue represents oxygen-poor blood. (a) Fishes have a twochambered heart and a single circuit of blood flow. (b) Amphibians have a three-chambered heart and two circuits of blood flow: pulmocutaneous and
systemic. This double circulation delivers blood to systemic organs under high pressure. In the single ventricle, there is some mixing of oxygen-rich blood
with oxygen-poor blood. (It is customary to illustrate cardiovascular systems with the right side of the heart on the left and the left side on the right, as if
the body is facing you from the page.) (c) Mammals have a four-chambered heart and double circulation. Within the heart, oxygen-rich blood is kept
completely segregated from oxygen-poor blood.
A more detailed diagram of blood flow through the mammalian cardiovascular system is
shown in FIGURE 42.4, which has numbers keyed to the circled numbers in this text
discussion. Beginning our tour with the pulmonary (lung) circuit,  the right ventricle
pumps blood to the lungs via  the pulmonary arteries. As the blood flows through 
capillary beds in the right and left lungs, it loads oxygen and unloads carbon dioxide.
Oxygen-rich blood returns from the lungs via the pulmonary veins to  the left atrium
of the heart. Next, the oxygen-rich blood flows into  the left ventricle, as the ventricle
opens and the atrium contracts. The left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood out to
body tissues through the systemic circuit. Blood leaves the left ventricle via  the aorta,
which conveys blood to arteries leading throughout the body. The first branches from the
aorta are the coronary arteries (not shown), which supply blood to the heart muscle itself.
Then come branches leading to capillary beds  in the head and arms (or forelimbs).
The aorta continues in a posterior direction, supplying oxygen-rich blood to arteries
leading to  arterioles and capillary beds in the abdominal organs and legs. Within the
capillaries, blood gives up much of its oxygen and picks up the carbon dioxide produced
by cellular respiration. Capillaries rejoin to form venules, which convey blood to veins.
Oxygen-poor blood from the head, neck, and forelimbs is channeled into a large vein
called  the anterior (or superior) vena cava. Another large vein called  the posterior
(or inferior) vena cava drains blood from the trunk and hind limbs. The two venae cavae
empty their blood into
the right atrium, from which the oxygen-poor blood flows into
the right ventricle.
42.04 Mammalian Cardiovascular System
42.05 Heart Parts
Fig 42-5. The mammalian heart: a closer look. In this detailed view of the structure of the heart, notice the valves, which prevent backflow of blood within
the heart, and the relative thickness of the walls of the heart chambers. The atria, which pump blood only into the ventricles, have thinner walls than the
ventricles, which pump blood to the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
42.06 Cardiac Cycle
Fig 42-6. The cardiac cycle. The heart contracts (systole) and relaxes (diastole) in a rhythmic cycle. For an adult human at rest with a pulse of about 75
beats per minute, one complete cardiac cycle takes about 0.8 sec.  During a relaxation phase (atria and ventricles in diastole) lasting about 0.4 sec, blood
returning from the large veins flows into the atria and ventricles.  A brief period (about 0.1 sec) of atrial systole then forces all remaining blood out of the
atria into the ventricles.  During the remaining 0.3 sec of the cycle, ventricular systole pumps blood into the large arteries. Note that seven-eighths of
the time--all but 0.1 sec of the cardiac cycle--the atria are relaxed and filling with blood returning in the veins.
42.07 Control of Heart Rhythm
Fig 42-7. The control of heart rhythm.  The SA node, or pacemaker, sets the tempo of the heartbeat by generating electrical signals (gold) that 
spread through both atria, making them contract simultaneously. The signals to contract are delayed at the AV node for about 0.1 sec, during which blood
in the atria empties into the ventricles.  Specialized muscle fibers called bundle branches and Purkinje fibers then conduct the signals to the apex of the
heart and  throughout the ventricular walls. The signals trigger powerful contractions of both ventricles from the apex toward the atria, driving blood
into the large arteries. Gold color in the graphs at the bottom indicates the components of an electrocardiogram (ECG) corresponding to the sequence of
electrical events in the heart. In step 4, the black portion of the ECG to the right of the gold "spike" represents electrical activity after the ventricles
contract; during this phase of the ECG, the ventricles become re-primed electrically and thus are able to conduct the next round of contraction signals.
42.08 Blood Vessel Structures
42.10 Blood Flow Dynamics
Fig 42-10. The interrelationship of blood flow velocity, cross-sectional area of blood vessels, and blood pressure. Blood flow velocity decreases markedly in
the arterioles and is slowest in the capillaries, owing to an increase in total cross-sectional area. Blood pressure, the main force driving blood from the heart
to the capillaries, is highest in the arteries. Peaks in blood pressure corresponding to ventricular systole alternate with lower blood pressures corresponding
to diastole (elasticity in arterial walls keeps diastolic pressure from falling to zero). Resistance to flow through the arterioles and capillaries, due to contact
of the blood with a greater surface area of endothelium, reduces blood pressure and eliminates pressure peaks.
42.11 How to Measure Blood Pressure
42.12 Blood Flow thru Capillary Bed
42.13 Capillary Exchange of Fluids
42.14 Components of Mammalian Blood
42.16 Blood Clotting
42.21 Countercurrent Exchange
Fig 42-21. Countercurrent exchange. The arrangement of blood vessels in fish gills is an adaptation that maximizes oxygen transfer from the water to the
blood. The countercurrent flow of water and blood maintains a concentration gradient down which O2 diffuses from the water into the blood over the
whole length of a capillary. As the blood flows through a lamellar capillary, it becomes more and more loaded with oxygen because it continuously passes
by water that is more and more concentrated in O2.
42.23ab Mammalian Respiratory System
Fig 42-23. The mammalian respiratory system. (a) From the nasal cavity and pharynx, inhaled air passes through the larynx and down the trachea and
bronchi to the tiniest bronchioles, which end in lobed, microscopic air sacs called alveoli. (b) A thin, moist epithelium lining the inner surfaces of the
alveoli is the respiratory surface. Branches of the pulmonary artery (see FIGURE 42.4) convey oxygen-poor blood to the alveoli, while branches of the
pulmonary vein transport oxygen-rich blood from the alveoli back to the heart
42.24 Negative Pressure Breathing
Fig 42-24. Negative pressure breathing. A mammal breathes by changing the air pressure within its lungs relative to the pressure of the outside atmosphere.
During inhalation, the rib muscles and diaphragm contract. The volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs increases as the diaphragm moves down and the
rib cage expands. Air pressure in the lungs falls below that of the atmosphere, and air rushes into the lungs. Exhalation occurs when the rib muscles and
diaphragm relax, restoring the thoracic cavity to its smaller volume.
42.26 Automatic Breathing Control
42.27 Respiratory Gas Exchange
Fig 42-27. Loading and unloading of respiratory gases. The colored bars indicate the partial pressures of O2 (PO2) and CO2 (PCO2) (in mm Hg) in different
locations. At each location, the respiratory gases diffuse down their partial pressure gradients.
42.28 Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
42.29 Blood and CO2 Transport