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Rise of Civilizations
Downfall of Sumer
 3000
to 2000 BCE city-states at constant war
 Sargon
of Akkad
 Around
2350 B.C., Sargon from Akkad defeats city-states of Sumer
 Creates
first empire
 His
dynasty lasts about 200 years
 Babylonian
 Amorites
 Make
Empire
take control of region around 2000 B.C.
Babylon, on Euphrates River, the capital
 Babylonian
Empire at peak during Hammurabi’s rule (1792-1750 B.C.)
Hammurabi’s Code

Hammurabi creates a code of laws for the Babylonian Empire

282 laws on all aspects of life; engraved in stone and made public

Set different punishments depending on social class, gender

Goal for government to take responsibility for order, justice

Amorite rule for Fertile Crescent ends 200 years after Hammurabi
Seafaring Traders

The Minoan People

The Minoans, powerful seafaring people, live on Crete in Aegean Sea

Dominate trade in eastern Mediterranean from 2000 to 1400 B.C.

Culture influences others, especially Greeks

Unearthing a Brilliant Civilization


Excavations of Knossos, capital city of Minoan civilization, revealed:

Minoans were peaceful, athletic, lovers of nature and beauty

Women had major role, especially in religion

Sacrificed animals, and sometimes people, to gods
Archaeologists name civilization Minoa after King Minos

King Minos—legendary king who owned a minotaur

Minoan Culture’s Mysterious End

Earthquakes in 1700 B.C. caused damage, but Minoans rebuild

In 1470 B.C. major earthquakes and volcanic eruption

Minoans never recover from disasters

Invaders from Greece take Minoan lands



The Phoenician People

Phoenicians—powerful traders in wealthy city-states along Mediterranean

Skilled shipbuilders, seafarers; sailed around continent of Africa
Commercial Outposts Around the Mediterranean

Phoenicians set up colonies in western and central Mediterranean

Famous for red-purple dye produced from snail
Phoenicia’s Great Legacy: The Alphabet

Developed system of writing to record trade deals

Later developed into western alphabet

Trade Links Peoples

Land routes link Mediterranean world and Asia

Indian traders sail to Southeast Asia and Indonesia

Trade helps spread culture, ideas, religion
Origins of Judaism


Ancient Palestine

Palestine was region on eastern shores of Mediterranean

Hebrew people settled in Canaan, land promised to them by God
From Ur to Egypt

Torah, first five books of Hebrew Bible, tells early history of Hebrews

In Torah, God chose Abraham, a shepherd, to be father of Hebrew people

Abraham moves family and herds from Ur to Canaan around 1800 B.C.

Around 1650 B.C. Abraham’s descendants move to Egypt

The God of Abraham

Hebrews are monotheists, believing in one God only—Yahweh

Yahweh is all powerful, not a physical being

A mutual promise, covenant, is made between God and Abraham

Abraham promises to obey God, Yahweh promises protection

Hebrews Migrate to Egypt



At first Hebrews are honored in Egyptian kingdom; later become slaves
“Let My People Go”

Hebrews flee Egypt between 1300 and 1200 B.C.

Bible tells of God’s command that Moses lead this “Exodus”
A New Covenant

Moses receives Ten Commandments—become basis of Hebrew law


The Land and People of the Bible

Torah tells of Hebrews wandering Sinai Desert for 40 years

Arrive in Canaan form twelve tribes; judges provide leadership
A Hebrew Law

Women and men have separate roles, responsibilities

Law includes strict justice softened by mercy

Prophets arise later to interpret the law

They teach people to live moral lives
The Kingdom of Israel


Canaan

Solomon Builds the Kingdom

Land that Hebrews believe God
promised them

David’s son Solomon becomes King;
makes Israel a trading empire

Canaan land is harsh; Hebrews expand
south and north

He builds a magnificent temple and
royal palace in Jerusalem
Saul and David Establish a
Kingdom

The Kingdom Divides

High taxes and forced labor lead
Jews in north to revolt

Hebrews threatened by Philistines to the
north

By 922 B.C. kingdom divides in two—
Israel in north, Judah in south

Only one tribe remains, Judah; Hebrew
religion called Judaism

200 years of conflict follow

From 1020 to 922 B.C. Hebrews (Jews)
unite; new kingdom called Israel

King David establishes Jerusalem as
capital
The Babylonian Captivity


A Conquered People

In 738 B.C. Israel and Judah pay tribute (money for peace) to Assyria

By 722 B.C. Assyrians conquer Israel

In 586 B.C. Babylonians conquer Judah, destroy
Solomon’s Temple

Many surviving Jews exiled to Babylon

In 539 B.C. Persians conquer Babylon; 40,000 Jews return to Jerusalem

Temple and walls rebuilt; land later ruled by Persians, Greeks, Romans
Egypt

Egypt’s Settlements


Arise along the 4,100-mile Nile River on narrow strip of fertile land
The Gift of the Nile

Yearly flooding brings water and fertile black mud—silt

Farmers build irrigation system for wheat and barley crops

Egyptian’s worship Nile as a god

Environmental Challenges

Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt

Light floods reduce crops, cause
starvation

River area south of First Cataract is
elevated, becomes Upper Egypt

Heavy floods destroy property;
deserts isolate and protect Egyptians

Cataract—where boulders turn Nile
River into churning rapids

River area north, including Nile delta,
becomes Lower Egypt

Delta—land formed by silt deposits at
mouth of river; triangular
Egypt unites into a kingdom

King Narmer Creates Egyptian
Dynasty



Villages of Egypt ruled by two
kingdoms—Lower Egypt, Upper
Egypt
King Narmer unites them around
3000 B.C.; makes Memphis capital
Establishes first Egyptian dynasty

Pharaohs Rule as Gods

To the Egyptians, kings are gods;
Egyptian god kings called pharaohs

Pharaohs control religion,
government, army, well-being of
kingdom

Government based on religious
authority—theocracy

Builders of the Pyramids

Kings believed to rule even after death; have eternal life force, ka

Build elaborate tombs, pyramids, to meet needs after death

Pyramids made with blocks of stone, 2-15 tons each; 481 ft. high

Kingdom had leadership, government; economically strong
Egyptian Culture

Religion and Life

Egyptians believe in 2,000 gods and goddesses—polytheistic

Re is sun god, Osiris, god of the dead; goddess Isis is ideal woman

Believe in life after death; person judged by deeds at death

Develop mummification, process that prevents body from decaying

Book of the Dead contains prayers and spells, guides soul after death
Life in Egyptian society

Social Classes

Egyptian Writing

Society shaped like pyramid, from
Pharaoh down to farmers, laborers

In hieroglyphics writing system,
pictures represent ideas

Few people at top have great
power; most people at bottom

Paperlike sheets made from papyrus
reeds used for writing

People move into higher social
classes through marriage or merit

Women have many of the same
rights as men

Egyptian Science and Technology

Egyptians invent calendar of 365 days and 12 months

Develop system of written numbers and a form of geometry

Skilled engineers and architects construct palaces, pyramids

Egyptian medicine famous in the ancient world
Invaders control Egypt

Changes to Egyptian Society

Power of Pharaohs declines about 2180 B.C.; end of Old Kingdom

In Middle Kingdom (2040 to 1640 B.C.), some pharaohs regain control

Improve trade, dig canal from Nile to Red Sea, drain swamps for farms

Hyksos move into Egypt from Palestine; rule from 1630 to 1523 B.C.
Egyptian and Nubian Empires

Invaders



About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the Hyksos, use chariots to conquer Egypt
Hebrews Migrate to Egypt

Hebrews move to Egypt from Canaan around 1650 B.C.

Egyptians resent the presence of Hebrews and Hyksos in Egypt
Expulsion and Slavery

Egyptians drive out the hated Hyksos

Hebrews lose protection of Hyksos; are enslaved
The New Kingdom of Egypt


Technological Changes

About 1570 to 1075 B.C. pharaohs create New Kingdom, a powerful empire

Army uses bronze weapons and chariots to conquer other lands
Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule

Hatshepsut—pharaoh whose reign most noted for her trade expeditions, not
war

Thutmose the Empire Builder

Thutmose III, Hatshepsut’s stepson, expands Egypt’s empire

Invades Palestine, Syria, and Nubia—region around the upper Nile River

Egypt most powerful and wealthy during reign of New Kingdom pharaohs

The Egyptians and the Hittites

An Age of Builders

Around 1285 B.C. Egyptians battle the
Hittites in Palestine

New Kingdom pharaohs built great
palaces, magnificent temples

Egypt’s pharaoh, Ramses II, and the
Hittite king sign a peace treaty

Valley of the Kings near Thebes is
home to royal tombs

Ramses II builds impressive temples
with enormous statues of himself
The Empire Declines


Invasion by Land and Sea

“Sea Peoples” (possibly Philistines) cause great destruction in Egypt

Libyan raids on villages and Palestine rebellions weaken empire
Egypt’s Empire Fades

Weakened empire breaks into smaller kingdoms

From around 950 to 730 B.C. Libyan pharaohs rule Egypt, erect cities
The Kushites conquer the Nile
Region

Egypt and Kush


From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt dominates kingdom of Kush in Nubia
The People of Nubia

Live south of Egypt near division of Blue Nile and White Nile

Nile River is a great trade route for goods and ideas

Nubians link Egypt and Mediterranean to African interior through trade


The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia

Egyptian culture influences Nubia and beyond to southern Africa

About 1200 B.C., Nubia gains independence but keeps Egyptian culture
Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne

In 751 B.C., Kushite king Piankhi conquers Egypt, ousts Libyans

Assyrians overcome Kushites and take Egypt
The Golden Age of Meroë

Meroë



Kushites settle Meroë; join in trade with Africa, Arabia, India
The Wealth of Kush

Meroë becomes important center for iron weapons and tools

Iron products transported to Red Sea, exchanged for luxury goods
The Decline of Meroë

Meroë thrives from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150, then declines

Aksum, 400 miles southeast, dominates North African trade

Has port on Red Sea, defeats Meroë in A.D. 350
The Assyrian Empire

Assyria



Assyria uses military might to acquire empire across Southwest Asia
The Rise of a Warrior People

After invasions in Mesopotamia, Assyrians develop warlike behavior

Assyrian king Sennacherib brutally destroys enemies
Military Organization and Conquest

Glorified armies wear metal armor, copper helmets, leather protection

Use iron weapons, engineering skill, and brute force to conquer cities

Kill, enslave, or banish captive peoples to distant lands
The Empire Expands

Kings of Assyria



Defeat Syria, Palestine, Babylonia between 850 and 650 B.C.
Assyrian Rule

Creates central authority over local governors of dependent regions

Collects taxes and tribute from conquered lands
Assyrian Culture

Rulers build great cities, including capital at Nineveh

Carved sculptures of military campaigns and the lion hunt

King Ashurbanipal builds library of 20,000 tablets; Epic of Gilgamesh
Rebirth of Babylon under the
Chaldeans

Early Warnings


Decline and Fall


Empire spread thin, cruelty earns many enemies, Ashurbanipal dies
Army of Medes and Chaldeans destroys Nineveh (612 B.C.); library survives
Rebirth of Babylon Under the Chaldeans

Chaldeans make Babylon capital of own empire

King Nebuchadnezzar builds legendary hanging gardens of Babylon

Builds tall ziggurats; astronomers make discoveries about solar system

Chaldean Empire falls to Persians; they adopt Assyrian inventions
The Persian Empire


The Persian Homeland

Persia (ancient Iran) has fertile land and minerals

Medes and Persians rose to power there
Cyrus the Great Founds an Empire

Starting in 550 B.C., Persian king Cyrus conquers neighboring lands

Governs with tolerance toward conquered peoples

Honors local customs, including religious ones

Allows Jews to return to Israel to rebuild temple of Jerusalem
Persian Rule


Cambyses and Darius

Cyrus’s son, Cambyses, conquers Egypt but rules unwisely

Darius seizes control, establishes stability; expands empire to India
Provinces and Satraps

Darius divides empire into 20 areas of local administration

Appoints satraps—governors—to rule each area

Build Royal Road to make communication within empire easier

Issues coins that can be used throughout the empire
The Persian Legacy

Zoroaster



Persian thinker called Zoroaster develops new religion
Zoroaster’s Teachings

Life is a battleground between good and evil

One god will judge us by how well we fight for good

Zoroastrianism influenced Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Political Order

Through tolerance and good government, Persians bring political order

Preserve earlier cultures, find new ways to live and rule