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Grade 9 Academic Science – Unit 3 Space Motion of the Celestial Bodies Section 8.5 Pages 320-328 Celestial bodies include all the objects that orbit the sun. Gravity is the force that keeps the Earth orbiting the Sun, but it is also responsible for all other orbiting bodies (moon around planets, Comets-Sun, Galaxies turn) Orbit and the force of gravity There is a force of attraction between all objects with mass called the gravitational force. The greater the mass of an object the greater its gravitational force (ex. the moon = 1/6 the mass of earth has a gravity 1/6 that of the earth – you can jump higher on the moon) An orbiting body maintains orbit due to a balance between the gravitational pull and its forward speed. The orbital velocity of the outer planets is much faster and there mass causes them to be much further away. Earth is one Astronomical Unit away from the sun (AU); Jupiter is 5.2 AU from the sun (five times further) 1 AU = 150 million km : 5.2 AU = ___________________ Earths Rotation causes the sky to appear to move from the east to the west. One rotation equals a day. Earth’s revolution (orbit) takes 364.25 days (one year) Planets Inner Outer Earths Tilt is the Reason for the Seasons on the Earth. Direct sunlight will hit the Northern Hemisphere in our summer, at the equator in the spring and in the south during our winter. The axis is “pointing towards the “North star”. (23.5o) The lunar cycle is determined by the position of the moon around the earth and the reflection. The moon’s gravity also causes the tides and it is involved in eclipses (see activities: eclipses, lunar phases) Day (rotation) Year (revolution) Grade 9 Academic Science - Unit 3 Space Lunar, Solar and Annular Eclipse For each diagram, use a ruler to draw the light rays to illustrate the appropriate shadow. 1. Solar Eclipse SUN Moon Earth 2. Lunar Eclipse SUN Moon Earth 3. Annular Eclipse (…when the Moon is farther from the Earth than the length of its umbra) SUN Moon Earth Annular Eclipse – A solar eclipse that occurs when the apparent size of the Moon is not great enough to completely cover the Sun. A thin ring of sunlight can be seen around the black disk of the Moon. Lunar eclipse - The passage of the Moon into the shadow of the Earth, always occurring at a full Moon. Solar eclipse - The passage of the new Moon directly between the Sun and the Earth when the Moon's shadow is cast upon the Earth. The Sun appears in the sky either partially or totally covered by the Moon. Umbra - A complete shadow (as of the Moon) within which the source of light (the Sun) is totally hidden from view. If the light source is greater in size than the object causing the shadow, the edges of the shadow will appear less sharp than when the light source is smaller. The blurred edge is, in fact, a penumbra while the darker part of the shadow is the umbra.