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Recommended Amount of
Carbohydrate In The Diet
 Total Carbohydrate
 45% - 65% of your daily calories should come from
Types of Carbohydrates
 Simple and complex carbohydrates
 All carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram
 Almost entirely from plant food sources
 Exception - milk
Simple Carbohydrates
Two types – Mon0saccharides and
 Monosaccharides
 Glucose
 Blood sugar
 Fructose
 Fruit sugar
 Galactose
 Milk sugar
Simple Carbohydrates
 Disaccharides
 Two monosaccharides linked together
(glucose is always one of the simple sugars)
 Sucrose
 Table sugar
 Lactose
 Milk sugar
 Maltose
 Malt sugar
Complex Carbohydrates
 Polysaccharides
 Many glucose units bonded together
 Two types
 Starch
 Fiber
Complex Carbohydrates
 Starch
 Grains
 Breads
 Pasta
 Vegetables
 Corn
 Peas
 Potatoes
 Legumes
 Dried beans
 Dried peas
Complex Carbohydrates
 Fiber (1.4 g per 100 calories consumed daily)
Whole grains
 Two types of fiber
 Soluble
 Insoluble
 The bonds for the most part can not be
broken down by the human digestive system
Health Benefits of Fiber
 Decreases risk of
 Obesity
 Digestive tract disorders
 Constipation
 Diverticulitis
 Hemorrhoids
 Colon cancer
 Diabetes
 Heart disease
Recommended Amounts of Fiber
 1.4 grams of fiber per 100 calories consumed
 Increase water consumption
 Consume both soluble and insoluble
Examples of Soluble and
Insoluble Fiber
 Soluble
Citrus fruits
Oat bran
 Insoluble
Brown rice
Green beans
Green peas
Many vegetables
Fruit./vegetable skins
Whole grains
Carbohydrate Function
 Carbohydrate is the preferred energy
source of the body.
All carbohydrate is converted to glucose
for energy.
Glucose is required by the brain, RBCs &
CNS for energy (ATP).
Excess carbohydrate is stored as glycogen.
(liver & muscle)
If glycogen stores are full, excess
carbohydrate is stored as fat.
Cabohydrate Function
 Liver glycogen maintains blood sugar for
brain, RBCs & CNS function.
 Muscle glycogen maintains the working
muscle in high intensity exercise.
 The hormones insulin & glucagon regulate
blood sugar levels.
 Insulin decreases while glucagon increases
blood sugar.
Glycogen is the storage form of glucose.
 Made from dietary carbohydrate sources.
 All carbohydrate is converted to glucose then
stored as glycogen or used immediately.
Where is Glycogen Stored?
 The Liver
 Is used for blood sugar (glucose) regulation.
 The Muscle
 Is used for the working muscle.
How does the body regulate blood
 By hormones that are produced in the pancreas.
 The hormones effect the liver & muscle cells.
 Insulin: decreases blood sugar levels.
 Glucagon: increases blood sugar level.
Blood Sugar Regulation, Part 1
Blood Sugar Regulation, Part 2
Diabetes : A chronic disease
 Is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood
 Affects >20 million Americans, many unaware.
 Increases heart disease, stroke, kidney disease,
retinopathy, and neuropathy.
 Decreases life expectancy.
 Occurs as type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
Type 1
Less common
• ~5% of cases
• Juvenile onset
• Is more difficult to control
• Insulin administration is essential in the control of
blood sugar (Insulin-dependent diabetes)
• Is due to a genetic and/or viral factor causing auto
immunity directed against the pancreatic beta
cells,no insulin is made
Physiology of Type 1 Diabetes,
Part 1
Physiology of Type 1 Diabetes,
Part 2
Type 2
Very common
• ~95% of cases
• Typically adult onset
• May be controlled with lifestyle changes & oral
hypoglycemic agents
• Is caused by insulin resistance (decreased insulin
receptor response)
• Is predisposed by obesity & genetics.
Physiology of Type 2 Diabetes, Part
Physiology of Type 2 Diabetes, Part
. Oral Hypoglycemic
drugs are used to
make the cells
respond to the
2. Blood sugar
levels decline.
1. Oral Hypoglycemic
drugs are used to make
the cells respond to the
2. Blood sugar levels
Indications of Diabetes
 Fasting glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dl.
Normal Blood Glucose is 70-99 mg/dl
Pre-Diabetes is 100-125 mg/dl
Glycemic Index of Foods
 Diabetes occurs as type 1 & type 2.
 Unmanaged diabetes has health
 Individuals with diabetes should consider
the glycemic response of foods for diet
 Selecting low glycemic index foods is
useful in controlling blood sugar rises