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The Cardiovascular System
7-3.2 Recall the major organs of the human body and their
functions within their particular body system.
Circulatory System
 Definition: The group of organs consisting of heart
and blood vessels that circulates blood through the
body.
 Works with the Digestive and Respiratory System.
Functions of Circulatory System
 Transport Blood to all Parts of Body
 Allow Nutrients, Gases, and Wastes to be transported
TO and FROM cells.
 White Blood Cells Help Fight Disease and Infection
 All Body systems are dependent on the circulatory
system for transport of materials
Blood
 Definition: Fluid in body that delivers oxygen and other
materials to cells and removes carbon dioxide and other
wastes.
Function
 Carries needed materials and wastes
Description
 Plasma: liquid part of blood; made mostly of water but also
contains nutrients, salt and materials
 5 liters of blood are pumped through your body.
Made of 3 Types of Cells
 RED BLOOD CELLS- disk shaped, no nucleus, carry Oxygen
and CO2
 WHITE BLOOD CELLS- defend body against bacteria and
viruses
 PLATELETS- cell fragments that collect at site of a wound and
form scabs and clot
Blood Vessels
 Tube shaped structures
 Arteries- vessels that take away from the heart.
 A= Away
 Thick, strong walls to handle tremendous force produced
from the pumping of the heart
 Veins-vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
 Thinner walls
 Large Diameter
 Capillaries- connect arteries with veins
 Allow for exchange of oxygen and nutrients.
 Allow for waste materials and carbon dioxide to move from
cells to blood in veins.
Blood Pressure
 Blood Pressure-When blood is pushed through blood
vessels it puts pressure on the blood vessels.
 It is important to keep a healthy blood pressure so
that materials in blood can get to all parts of your
body.
How to Read Blood Pressure
 Expressed with two numbers---one
number over another number.
 The first number refers to the
pressure in the arteries with the
heart contracts.
 The second number refers to the
pressure in the arteries when the
heart relaxes and receives blood
from the veins
 120/80 would be considered a
normal blood pressure. What else
would be considered normal?
 Having a high blood pressure puts
you at risk for heart attack.
The Heart
 Causes blood to flow through the body by its pumping
action
 Roughly the size of your fist.
 Made of cardiac muscle.
 The Right Side of the Heart: pumps blood to lungs to
receives oxygen
 The left Side of the Heart: pumps blood to the entire body.
 Made of 4 chambers; and 2 pumps.
 During your life, your heart will beat over 3 billion times.
How the Heart Works
 Each side has two chambers- an upper and lower
chamber------4 total chambers
 The upper chamber is called the atrium and they
receive blood that comes into the heart
 The lower chambers are called the ventricles which
pump blood out of the heart
 The atrium and ventricle are separated by valvesflaps of tissue that prevent blood from flowing
backward.
Heart Fun Facts
 Every day, your heart creates enough energy to drive a truck
for 20 miles.
 75 trillion cells receive blood from your heart.
 Your heart beats over 100, 00 times a day.
 .The “thump-thump” of a heartbeat is the sound made by
the four valves of the heart closing
 1A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in circulation.
An adult human has about four to five quarts which the heart
pumps to all the tissues and to and from the lungs in about
one minute while beating 75 times.
 An arrhythmia is an irregular heart beat.
2 Loops
 After leaving the heart, blood travels through the body
 Your body has three kinds of vessels
 Arteries- blood vessels that carry blood away from the
heart
 The pattern of blood flow looks like a figure 8
 In the 1st loop, blood travels from the heart to the lungs
and then back to the heart. In the 2nd loop, blood is
pumped from the heart throughout the body and then
returns again to the heart.
Blood Types
 Each red blood cell has special proteins on its surface
to determine blood type.
 Type O blood is the universal donor.
 Type AB blood is the universal acceptor.
Blood Sugar
 Definition: the amount of glucose (sugar) present in
the blood of a human or animal.
 Glucose levels are lowest in the morning before
breakfast.
 Hyperglycemia- High blood sugar levels
 Hypoglycemia- Low blood sugar levels
 Insulin is a natural chemical in the body that helps
control blood sugar levels.
Diabetes
 High blood sugar
 Type 1 Diabetes





Body does not produce Insulin
Often called juvenile diabetes; occurs before age 40.
Must take insulin injections for the rest life
Regular blood tests and special diet
Rare—10% of people with diabetes have type 1
 Type 2 Diabetes
 Not enough insulin produced
 90% of cases worldwide
 Can control type 2 by losing weight, following healthy diet,
exercising, and monitoring blood glucose levels in some cases.
 Progressive- type 2 gets gradually worse.
 More common in obese people.