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CARBOHYDRATES • Primary source of energy in your diet. • 45%-55% of your diet should be carbs. • 130 grams of carbs per day should be in your diet based on 2000 calorie diet. • Carbs have glucose which is a primary fuel for muscles. • CHO- hydrated carbons, contains carbon hydrogen and oxygen • Carbohydrates are found in a variety of foods, such as rice wheat , legumes, grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy. • COMPLEX-Takes longer to break down in your body. Found in breads, whole grains, pasta, rice, legumes. • SIMPLE-Quicker to break down in body. Found in fruits and vegetables, and dairy. • Fiber- is a special form of a complex carbohydrate. It helps move wastes through your digestive system. • Soluble-dissolves in water and is found in fruits and vegetables. • Insoluble-takes longer to digest and found in whole grains and brown rice. • Having a diet high in fiber helps reduce the risks of heart disease, helps reduce blood cholesterol levels, lowers risk of Type 2 diabetes, and reduces the risks of colon cancer. • 25-35 grams of fiber a day is recommended in daily diet. Carbohydrates • Provide energy-energy intake=energy output. When we exercise at maximal effort, carbs are providing 100% of body’s energy. • Fuel daily activity • Fuel exercise-carbs provide energy for your brain, red blood cells, and muscles Path of Digestion • • • • • Mouth-Salivary Glands(amylase) Esophagus Stomach Small intestines Large intestines- foods that haven’t been broken down or absorbed. • Rectum-24- 36 hours for food to pass • The primary goal of digestion is to break down foods into simple molecules so it can pass into the bloodstream to provide the body with energy for life. • The majority of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the small intestines. • Fiber passes through the small intestines and undigested fiber enters large intestines and then the colon. • Hypothalamus-located above the pituitary gland and contains a cluster of nerves known as feeding center. The brain knows when our body requires food. • When our body is deprived of carbohydrates it seeks an alternative source for fuel and energy. Our body will produce ketones, or our body will make own glucose from protein. • Ketones-This is an alternative energy source for the brain when our glucose levels are low. • Ketoacidosis-if a person starves their body of carbs for an extended period of time, the body will produce excessive amounts of ketones. The blood becomes acidic which damages the body tissue and alters body functions. • The average carbohydrate intake per person in the United States is approximately 50% of total energy intake. Almost half of this amount consists of added sugars. Most of our diets contain processed sugars, like high fructose corn syrup. On an average we take in approximately 30 teaspoons of sugar per day. We should only have 6-9 teaspoons per day. Sugar • Having increased amounts of sugar in your diet can contribute to: • Tooth decay • Increased levels of unhealthy lipids in your blood. • Diabetes • Obesity Diabetes • Type 1- juvenile(10-14 years of age). This is an autoimmune disease, which means the bodies immune system destroys and attacks its own tissue. The body does not produce insulin, which means the pancreas is not functioning properly. • Type 2- (adult onset) The body cells become resistant to insulin. There is an inappropriate accumulation of lipids in muscle, liver, and pancreas. This is usually caused by obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. • Gestational –develops during pregnancy • Normal blood sugar=70-99mg/dL • Prediabetes=100-125mg/dL • Diabetes=126mg/dL When we eat glucose rises and insulin is produced by pancreas • Hypoglycemia-low blood sugar less than 70mg/dL Assignment • Read nutrition debate on page 136. Also read the article The Sugar Belly. • Answer critical thinking questions, 1,2,3. • Questions should be answered in full. The information you read should back up your responses.