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• Primary source of energy in your diet.
• 45%-55% of your diet should be carbs.
• 130 grams of carbs per day should be in
your diet based on 2000 calorie diet.
• Carbs have glucose which is a primary
fuel for muscles.
• CHO- hydrated carbons, contains carbon
hydrogen and oxygen
• Carbohydrates are found in a variety of
foods, such as rice wheat , legumes,
grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy.
• COMPLEX-Takes longer to break down in
your body. Found in breads, whole
grains, pasta, rice, legumes.
• SIMPLE-Quicker to break down in body.
Found in fruits and vegetables, and dairy.
• Fiber- is a special form of a complex
carbohydrate. It helps move wastes
through your digestive system.
• Soluble-dissolves in water and is found in
fruits and vegetables.
• Insoluble-takes longer to digest and
found in whole grains and brown rice.
• Having a diet high in fiber helps reduce
the risks of heart disease, helps reduce
blood cholesterol levels, lowers risk of
Type 2 diabetes, and reduces the risks of
colon cancer.
• 25-35 grams of fiber a day is
recommended in daily diet.
• Provide energy-energy intake=energy
output. When we exercise at maximal
effort, carbs are providing 100% of
body’s energy.
• Fuel daily activity
• Fuel exercise-carbs provide energy for
your brain, red blood cells, and muscles
Path of Digestion
Mouth-Salivary Glands(amylase)
Small intestines
Large intestines- foods that haven’t been
broken down or absorbed.
• Rectum-24- 36 hours for food to pass
• The primary goal of digestion is to break
down foods into simple molecules so it can
pass into the bloodstream to provide the
body with energy for life.
• The majority of carbohydrate digestion
occurs in the small intestines.
• Fiber passes through the small intestines and
undigested fiber enters large intestines and
then the colon.
• Hypothalamus-located above the
pituitary gland and contains a cluster of
nerves known as feeding center. The
brain knows when our body requires
• When our body is deprived of
carbohydrates it seeks an alternative
source for fuel and energy. Our body will
produce ketones, or our body will make
own glucose from protein.
• Ketones-This is an alternative energy
source for the brain when our glucose
levels are low.
• Ketoacidosis-if a person starves their
body of carbs for an extended period of
time, the body will produce excessive
amounts of ketones. The blood
becomes acidic which damages the body
tissue and alters body functions.
• The average carbohydrate intake per person
in the United States is approximately 50% of
total energy intake. Almost half of this
amount consists of added sugars. Most of
our diets contain processed sugars, like high
fructose corn syrup. On an average we take
in approximately 30 teaspoons of sugar per
day. We should only have 6-9 teaspoons per
• Having increased amounts of sugar in your
diet can contribute to:
• Tooth decay
• Increased levels of unhealthy lipids in your
• Diabetes
• Obesity
• Type 1- juvenile(10-14 years of age). This
is an autoimmune disease, which means
the bodies immune system destroys and
attacks its own tissue. The body does
not produce insulin, which means the
pancreas is not functioning properly.
• Type 2- (adult onset) The body cells
become resistant to insulin. There is an
inappropriate accumulation of lipids in
muscle, liver, and pancreas. This is
usually caused by obesity and a
sedentary lifestyle.
• Gestational –develops during pregnancy
• Normal blood sugar=70-99mg/dL
• Prediabetes=100-125mg/dL
• Diabetes=126mg/dL
When we eat glucose rises and insulin is
produced by pancreas
• Hypoglycemia-low blood sugar less than
• Read nutrition debate on page 136. Also read
the article The Sugar Belly.
• Answer critical thinking questions, 1,2,3.
• Questions should be answered in full. The
information you read should back up your