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Chapter 10 Section 3 Pages
Objectives: Students will be able to identify
the affect of the Persian war on Greek life.
Section 4 The Decline of City-States
The Greeks became weak from a long war
and soon became part of Macedonia.
1. Athens was Northeast of Sparta close to
the island of Salamis.
2. The locations was strategic to their
3. First ruled by Kings then they set up an
oligarchy or form of government in which
a few people have the ruling power.
4. Fights broke out between the upper class
and the farmers and merchants. They
didn’t like the way rules were made.
5. Draco the noble tried to change the
system but failed because the
punishments were too harsh.
6. Solon,( sah’ lon) a rich merchant tried
next in 594B.C.
7. Solon prepared a constitution or (plan of
government). These set up rules and
principles for all the people.
8. It said how much land someone owned
and gave the landowners a vote in the
9. The assembly made the laws.
10. Solon erased all debts and freed the
slave people for their debts. (People put in
slavery due to debt.)
11. Under Solon more people became
involved in government, trade increased,
but rich people thought he went to far and
poor people thought not far enough. He
lost popularity.
12. In 560 another leader, Peisistratus
(Pi sis trah tus) supported the lower class,
he divided the estates among the farmers
with no land and made it were anybody
could be citizens. He encouraged
sculpture and other arts.
A Democratic Constitution
1. After Peisistratus
(Pi sis trah tus)
died the Spartans took over Athens. They
were overthrown by Cleisthenes (klis
thun nez) and he put together the world’s
first constitution that was democratic (
favoring the equality of all people) things
like freedom of speech, which lasted 300
2. They opened the assembly to all males
over 20 years old, they elected 10
generals, to run the army, navy, and
judge in courts. With one as commanderin- chief.
3. The Council had 500 representatives with
a two year term, and they were elected
by “lots.”
4. They chose lots so the rich couldn’t buy
votes, second they felt every citizen was
smart enough to be in office.
II. The Persian Wars
1. About the time Athens was going through
their government changes, the Persians ruled
the largest and most powerful empire. They
conquered city-states in Ionia, the city-states in
the Aegean Sea and Asia Minor.
2. Darius, Persian King, put down a revolt from
Ionia and wanted to punish the rest of Greece.
The Persians landed on the plain of Marathon
(26 miles from Athens) after a battle with a
Greek victory, a runner ran to Athens and
cried out “Nike” (goddess of victory) and died.
Read P.171 Last paragraph.
3. After the battle of Marathon silver was
found near Athens and they used the
money to build “triremes” (warships with
three rows of rowers.)
4. The Persians did return and the Spartans
led the ground battle at Thermopylae
against Xerxes (zerk’ sez) the son of
Darius. The Athenian navy battled at sea.
Story on page 172 Read aloud
III The Delian League and the Athenian
1. The Persian were driven from Greece,
but they still ruled Ionia.
2. The Greeks decided to form a
defensive league for protection. The
other City-states paid for protection and
was run by Athens. They became rich
and powerful and this turned into an
Athenian Empire. It was run by Pericles.
He built the Parthenon. Next slide for picture
IV. The Decline of Athens
1. The other City-states became resentful
of Athens. This started a war by the
Spartans called the Peloponnesian War
that lasted for 30 years. Athens
surrendered to Sparta.
2. Thousands of Athenian soldiers
became mercenaries (hired soldiers) in
the Persian army.
3. Soon after the Athenians revolted and
set up another democracy, but not as
powerful as before.
Section 4 The Decline of the CityStates Pages 175
• After the Peloponnesian War the Greeks began
to lose their sense of community. The war had
lasted a long time and cost a great deal.
• After the war Sparta ruled Greece and was
overthrown by Thebes, but life was not better
they weakened and no longer pulled together.
• In 338B.C. Philip II of Macedonia from the north
conquered Greece