Download 3 -

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Biogeography wikipedia, lookup

Introduced species wikipedia, lookup

Conservation biology wikipedia, lookup

Ecology wikipedia, lookup

Biodiversity wikipedia, lookup

Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project wikipedia, lookup

Occupancy–abundance relationship wikipedia, lookup

Restoration ecology wikipedia, lookup

Ecological fitting wikipedia, lookup

Island restoration wikipedia, lookup

Ecosystem wikipedia, lookup

Bifrenaria wikipedia, lookup

Latitudinal gradients in species diversity wikipedia, lookup

Theoretical ecology wikipedia, lookup

Biodiversity action plan wikipedia, lookup

Human impact on the nitrogen cycle wikipedia, lookup

Habitat conservation wikipedia, lookup

Reconciliation ecology wikipedia, lookup

3. Study Figure 3.
(a) Explain the pattern of alien species invasions, and suggest the possible impacts of
alien species on ecosystems.
(b) Evaluate the relative importance of global and local threats to one named global
(15)(Total 25 marks)
(a)The species have been carried by marine trade on the hulls of ships and in bilge and ballast water and the
movements tend to be between developed areas, reflecting trade patterns. Some areas are not involved;
these tend to have less trade.
There may be some specific knowledge of individual species from Figure 3 which should be credited, as
should other species not shown on Figure 3 (rats).
The major disruption is to food chains, as the alien species out-compete existing species reducing their
numbers or even causing extinction. This can be directly through predation, or indirectly by occupying
ecological niches. There is also the possibility that disease might be spread by new species, and in
some cases damage to the physical make up of ecosystems (erosion). Biodiversity can be severely reduced,
and in the worst cases ecosystems collapse.
Level 2 5-7 Structure is satisfactory. Does explain the pattern with some clarity. Some understanding of
impact on ecosystems and uses some geographical terminology, but incomplete; makes reference to map.
Explanations are clear, but there are areas of less clarity. Lacks full range. There are some grammar,
punctuation and spelling errors.
(b) Indicative content
The question requires both scales of threat to be covered, which could be accomplished using the same or
different examples from within the named global ecosystem.
In terms of global threats, the likely focus will be on climate change as an overarching threat to forests, coral
and others. This threat may be occurring now, or projected to occur. Resource demand may also be
considered globally.
At a local level threats are likely to be associated with development and exploitation of resources (perhaps
directly, or indirectly e.g. oil), possibly pollution. Tourism is a possibility, in terms of coral or forest
destruction, plus urbanisation and other economic development.
Expect marine or terrestrial examples of global ecosystems (biomes).
Level 4 13-15 Carefully structured. Genuine evaluation of a range of threats; provides an overview of
balance of threats for named areas; detailed real world exemplification. Judgements present. Descriptive
language is well employed and precise. Explanations are always clear. Geographical terminology is used
with accuracy. Grammar, punctuation and spelling errors are very rare.