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Transcript
Online Counseling Resource
YCMOU ELearning Drive…
School of Architecture, Science and Technology
Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra
Open University, Nashik – 422222, India
OC-SBT/ SBI/ SGS034-CP1-02
Introduction
Programmes and Courses
 SEP – SBT034 – Unit 01
 SEP – SBI034 – Unit 01
 SEP – SGS034 – Unit 01
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Credits

Academic Inputs by

Arun Punaji More.
M.Sc. (Microbiology)

Experience: 11 Years

[email protected]
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
How to Use This Resource


Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver
lecture of 40-60 minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.
Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should
follow the lecture for about 40-60 minutes.

Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should
be provided to each student.

Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which
could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance
knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end
exam.

Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.

Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end
exam.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
4
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Learning Objectives

After studying this module, you should be able to:
 Define precursors of metabolic pathways.


Describe various precursors.
Describe roles of various precursors in different
metabolic pathways.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
5
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Introduction - 1


Precursors are compounds or
macromolecules which get transformed
into another macromolecules which has
got some function or functions.
Precursor can also be defined as the
starting materials for anabolic pathways
which are abundantly made available by
catabolic pathways.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
6
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Introduction - 2


By knowing the key precursors in a
metabolic pathway, one can decide the
stategy to regulate that pathway; this is
usefull approach to increase production of
of usefull secondary metabolites having
therapeutic or pharmacopic values.
By knowing key precursors in metabolic
pathways one can also find some cure to
correct the pathological condition arising
out of defective metabolic pathway by
targeting the key precursor.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
7
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Precursors of Gluconeogenesis

The following carbon macromolecules
serve as precursors in gluconeogenesis:
 Pyruvate.
 Acetyl CoA.
 Lactate
 Alanine
 Glycerol
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
8
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Precursors of Gluconeogenesis

Pyruvate: In gluconeogenesis from two molecules
are converted into one molecule of
glucose.
 In anaerobic microorganisms pyruvate
serve as precursor of ethanol for energy
production.
 Pyruvate acts as precursor in alanine,
valine and leucine biosynthesis.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
9
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Acetyl CoA

Acetyl CoA:


Acetyl CoA generated by
carbohydrates and fatty acids
oxidations is precursors for the
synthesis of cholesterol.
Acetyl CoA is precursor for ketone
bodies which is substitute for
glucose as energy source for brain
cells.
Acetyl CoA also acts as precursor in
fatty acid synthesis.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
10
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Cholesterol-1
For the biosynthesis of heme, glycine,
succinyl CoA and iron are precursor
molecules.
 Cholesterol acts as precursors to
1. sex hormones
2. bile salts.
3. vitamin D.

© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
11
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Cholesterol-2


Cholesterol is major constituent of plasma
membrane.
Cholesterol is precursor of all steroid
hormones such as androgens, gestagens,
glucocorticosteroid, estrogens, calciferol
(Vitamin D3) and mineralocorticoids.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
12
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Cholesterol-3

Cholesterol is precursor of testosterone
and cholic acid.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
13
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Vitamin A


Isoprene ,a five carbon compound is
precursor of vitamin A.
Vitamin A is synthesize by combining four
molecules of isoprene molecules.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
14
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Amino Acids as Precursors - 1




Many amino acids acts as precursors for
synthesis of secondary metabolites.
Tyrosine is precursor of catecholamines
such as dopamine and norepinephrine.
Tyrosine and tryptophan are precursors of
neurotransmiter proteins.
Tyrosine is also precursor of thyroid
hormones thyroxine triiodothyronine.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
15
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Amino Acids as Precursors - 2




Amino acids act as precursors in
biosynthesis of all proteins in human body.
Alanine acts as precursor in
gluconeogenesis.
Tyrosine and tryptophan are precursor of
neurotransmitter.
Tyrosine is precursor of catecholamines
such as dopamine and norepinephrine.
© 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.
16
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
What We Learn…..




Precursors are compounds or macromolecules.
Precursor can also be defined as the starting
materials for anabolic pathways.
Following carbon macromolecules serve as
precursors in gluconeogenesis:
 Pyruvate.
 Acetyl CoA.
 Lactate
 Alanine
 Glycerol
Cholesterol acts as precursors to
1. sex hormones
2. bile salts.
3. vitamin D
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Critical Thinking Question

What is the approach of finding out a
metabolic pathway?
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Tips for Critical Thinking Question


Isolation of precursor.
Finding out regulation or controlling of
metabolic processes by the intermediates
of such pathway.
School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource…
Study Tips

Book



Title: Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Author: Dr. J. L Jain
Publication: W S. Chand and Co. , New Delhi.
Book



Title: Principles of Biochemistry
Author: Dr. H Robert Horton
Publication: W S. Chand and Co. , New Delhi.
End of the Presentation
Thank You !