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Muslim Civilization:
Chapter 10.1
What have you heard about Islam and Muslims?
Islam: Submission to the will of Allah
A Muslim: One who submits to the will of Allah
Arabic for Allah
•Islam is a Judeo-Christian religion
• Monotheistic- belief in one god
• Islam does not require rabbis or prieststhere is no one between a Muslim and
• Muslims believe that God sent other
prophets including Abraham, Moses, and
Jesus, but Muhammad was the last and
greatest prophet
12 Arabian Tribes
12 Tribes of Israel
• Home to Arab tribes
in 500 A.D.
• Nomadic herders
called bedouins
•Tribes fought over
watering holes and
•Bedouin tribes traded
with nearby
Arab tribes
•Born in Mecca in 570 A.D.
• Mecca was a thriving market place
where many came to pray at the Kaaba.
•The pilgrims to Mecca worshiped
pagan gods and goddesses (polytheism).
•As a young man, Muhammad was a
sheppard among the bedouins and then
led caravans, becoming a wealthy
•At 25, he married a wealthy widow
(Khadija) who ran a caravan business.
• Muhammad was unhappy with the moral
ills of society.
• He often went to a cave in Mecca to
•When he was 40, he heard the voice of
the angel Gabriel in the cave. Gabriel
called on him to be messenger of God.
• At first, Muhammad was reluctant, but
Khadijah convinced him to follow the call.
•At first, few people listened to
Muhammad’s teachings.
• Under threat of murder, Muhammad
decided to flee: The Hijra.
• In 622 A.D., Muhammad fled from
Mecca to Yathrib, renamed Medina
(“city of the prophet”).
• 622 A.D. became the first year of the
Muslim calendar.
• The Hijra (Muhammad’s flight to
Medina) was an important historical
turning point
• In Medina, Muslims converts
welcomed the prophet and created
a community of Muslims or umma
• Loyalty to the umma was based
on Islam, not old family rivalries
• Meccan leaders became hostile
towards Muhammad, especially
after Muslims attacked key caravan
• After battling with
the Meccans,
Muhammad returned
to Mecca in 630 A.D.
• Until his death, Muhammad worked to unite
Arabs and Muslims.
• Muhammad died in 632 A.D., but Islam
continued to spread.
• He smashed idols in
the Kaaba and
rededicated the ancient
temple to Allah,
making it a holy Islamic
center for all time.
The Quran contains the sacred word of Allah
• Teaches about God’s will and provides a guide to life
• Emphasizes honesty, generosity, and social justice
• Sets harsh penalties for crimes like stealing and murder
• According to the Quran, each individual will stand before God on the
final judgment day to face eternal punishment in hell or eternal bliss in
• Muslims believe that the Quran should be read in Arabic to fully
appreciate the text’s poetic beauty and meaning
An ancient Quran from North Africa
A contemporary version of the Quran
THE CESSATION (A bringing to an end, or coming to an end)
In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the Merciful: 81:8
In this passage, Allah defends Muhammad (his messenger). He tells Muslims that
they should listen to Muhammad’s teachings as they represent the word of
When the sun ceases to shine; when the stars fall down and the mountains are blown
away; when camels big with young are left untended and the wild beasts are brought
together; when the seas are set alight and the men’s souls are reunited; when the
infant girl, buried alive, is asked for what crime she was slain; when the records of
men’s deeds are laid open and the heaven is stripped bare; when Hell burns fiercely
and Paradise is brought near: then each soul shall know what it has done.
I swear by the turning planets and by the stars that rise and set; by the fall of night and
the first breath of morning: this is the word of a gracious and mighty messenger, held in
honour by the Lord of the Throne, obeyed in heaven, faithful to his trust.
No, your compatriot is not mad. He saw him on the clear horizon. He does not grudge
the secrets of the unseen; nor is this the utterance of an accursed devil.
Whither then are you going?
This is an admonition to all men: to those among you that have the will to be upright.
Yet you cannot will, except by the will of Allah, Lord of the Creation.
1. In paragraph 1, which important tenet of Islam is described? (Hint,
look at slide number 13 from your Power Point notes).
2. Explain the following excerpt from paragraph 1: “when Hell burns
fiercely and Paradise is brought near: then each soul shall know what
it has done.”
3. How does paragraph 2 describe Allah? Is he a vindictive, benevolent,
or a combination of both?
4. According to the last two paragraphs, can men control their destinies?
Should they try to dictate their futures, or should they just submit to the
will of Allah?
• All observant Muslims perform five basic duties, known as the
“Five Pillars of Islam”
• Each pillar is based on Muhammad’s example in the Quran
• The first pillar is the Shahada
•The Shahada states that
“There is no god but God,
Muhammad is the messenger of
• Even though God sent other
prophets such as Abraham, Moses
and Jesus, Muhammad was the last
and greatest prophet.
• Mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day:
Late Afternoon
Before Going to Bed
•Wash before praying (ablution)
• Pray facing Mecca and use a prayer rug
• In some countries, Muslims stop everything and pray,
oftentimes in the street
•In many Muslim nations, muezzin’s call out from minaret’s 5 times
a day and people everywhere stop and pray.
• Muslims also pray in the mosque (or Muslim house or worship) on
Muslims believe that it is
important to care for others by
giving charity to the poor
•All good things belong to God
• In some Muslim countries,
money is collected in the form of
a tax called zakat (~ 2.5 % of one’s
• Zakat means “purification” and
• Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset
during the holy month of Ramadan- the
month in which Muhammad received
his revelation from the angel Gabriel.
• During this time, Muslims do not eat,
drink, or have sex.
A group of Muslim drummers
celebrate during Eid ul-Fitr.
• The sick, very young, or pregnant are not required to fast.
• Before sunrise and after sunset, families eat large meals together. At
the end of Ramadan (usually 40 days long) families celebrate Eid ulFitr, a holiday that includes feasts, music and presents.
•The fifth pillar of Islam is to
make the Hajj, or pilgrimage to
Mecca to pray at the Kaaba
• Each year, more than two
million Muslims go to Mecca for
the Hajj
• Those who complete the Hajj can
add Hajji to their name. For
example, “Ali” would become
“Hajji Ali”
• All pilgrims wear simple attire to
symbolize abandonment of the
material world before God
• Christians, Jews, and Muslims are
all considered “People of the
Book,” since they all worship the
same God through different
• Muslims believe that the Quran is
God’s final revelation, while
Hebrew and Christian scriptures are
only earlier revelations.
• Muslims see Christians and Jews
as spiritually superior to polytheistic
“idol worshipping” religions.
• Islam is a religion and a way of
• Sharia- the Islamic System of
Law. A body of law that gives
examples of behaviors from
Muhammad’s life, and Muslim
• Regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government,
and other aspects of life
• There is no separation of Church and State
• Sharia law unites Muslims
• Islam extended rights and protection to women
by affirming spiritual equality for all Muslims
• Before Islam, the position of women in Arab
society varied
• The Quran notes that “Whoever does right,
whether male or female, and is a believer, all
such will enter the Garden.”
• Although spiritually equal under Islam, men
and women still had different roles and rights
• Today, rights for Muslim women vary through
the Islamic world
In some Muslim countries like
Egypt, Kuwait, and Jordan
commonly give women more
rights and freedoms. In these
nations, women are not required
to wear a head scarf, or “hijab”
• In other Muslim countries like
Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and
Iran, women are often required to
wear a hijab and to also cover
their faces and eyes when out in