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Ano letivo 2012-2013
Biologia celular e molecular II
Cellular and molecular
mechanisms in Osteogenesis
Luís Baptista, turma 2
Tânia Alves, turma 1
Tiago Barbosa, turma 2
Tiago Capela, turma 2
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a congenital bone disorder.
Caused by mutations affecting type I collagen.
The molecule
Fibrous proteins found in all multicellular animals
Triple-stranded helical structure
Repeating sequence of three amino acids glycine-X-Y (X and Y are often
proline and hydroxyproline)
28 types of collagen identified and described
90% of the collagen in the body is of type I
Main types found in connective tissue: types I, II, III, V and VI
Collagen fibrils. These collagen fibrils are present in the
joint capsule tissue that surrounds the knee.
Collagen formation
What genes are related to
osteogenesis imperfecta?
 Mutations in the COL1A1, COL1A2, CRTAP, and LEPRE1
genes, as well as others.
 COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes
The COL1A1 gene is located on the long (q)
arm of chromosome 17 at position 21.33.
The COL1A2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of
chromosome 7 at position 22.1.
 CRTAP and LEPRE1 genes
The CRTAP gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 3
at position 22.3.
The LEPRE1 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 1 at
position 34.1.
How do people inherit
Osteogenesis imperfecta?
• Most cases of cases have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance;
• Sporadic mutations;
• Less commonly, osteogenesis imperfecta has an autosomal recessive
pattern of inheritance.
Molecular defects
OI type I
• Over 90% of patients have
mutations that reduce the
synthesis of pro-α1 chains to
about one half;
• Mutations that reduce the
synthesis of pro-α2 chains
produce slightly more severe
OI types II, III and IV
• Mutations that produce
structurally abnormal proα chains that have
compromised assembly or
abnormal folding of the
triple helix;
“Procollagen suicide”
One abnormal chain interacts with two normal chains
Folding is prevented
Accumulation of unfolded chains in the ER
Enzimatic degradation
Unfolded protein response (UPR) is estimulated
Intracellular efects
Intracellular efects
Glycine’s replacement
Replacement of glycine by a bulkier amino
Production of poorly formed and unstable triple
Disruption to helix folding
Increasing of posttranslational hydroxylation
and glycosylation of lysines
Intracellular efects
Intracellular efects
Extracellular efects
N-propeptide’s persistence
Abnormal pro-α chains prevent normal processing of
the N-propeptides
N-propeptides persist
Incorrect fibril assembly
Extracellular efects
 Collagen containing
helix mutation can
form insoluble
aggregates in the ER
that are degraded by
the autophagosomeendosome system;
 Glycine substitutions
in the N-terminal
region tend to
produce milder
• Rare
substitutions of
charged amino
acids or a
branched amino
acid in X- or Ypositions are
What determines the patients’
 Hypothesis: gradient of phenotypic severity
Type I (Mild)
Type II (Perinatal Lethal)
Type III (Progressive Deforming)
Type IV
• Diagnosis is primarily based on clinical
• The most frequent exams used to
identifying the disease are:
• X rays
• Laboratory testing
• Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
• Bone Biopsy
Currently prescribed
• orthopaedic surgery ;
• scoliosis management ;
• rehabilitation, including water therapy and
physical activity ;
• Develop healthy lifestyle diet and exercise
habits ;
Currently being investigated:
Treatments that are ineffective and are no
longer prescribed:
Pharmacologic Therapy
Growth Hormone
Inhibition of receptor activator of
nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)
Cellular and Genetic Therapy
Bone marrow transplantation
Gene therapy
• vitamin C
• sodium fluoride
• magnesium
• anabolic steroids
• calcitonin
Bone formation and bone
Pharmacologic therapy
Synthetic analogues of pyrophosphate, like
Pamidronate, Risedronate, Alendronate and
zoledronic acid ;
Inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption on
the endosteal surface of bone by:
Teriparatide (Forteo)
A synthetic form of the natural human
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) ;
Intermittent administration of these drug
• Increase bone mineral density and bone
• Reduce the chance of getting a fracture
In same cases, mainly in chilhood, there is an
increase in the incidence of osteosarcoma, a
malignant bone tumor
Growth Hormone(GH)
The effects of GH on bone cells are mediated
through the functional GH receptors (GHRs) on
osteoblast cells ;
But, it also stimulates the insulin-like growth
factor type 1 (IGF-1) production in liver and
Osteoblast formation is increased and
osteoblast apoptosis is inhibited
Increase in bone turnover and formation
Inhibition of receptor activator of
nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)
It’s a member of the tumor necrosis factor
(TNF) cytokine family ;
It’s a ligand for osteoprotegerin(OPG) ;
Key factor for osteoclast differentiation and
activation ;
The first FDA-approved RANKL inhibitor was
Cellular and Genetic Therapy
Bone marrow transplantation
contains both hematopoietic stem cells and
mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)
latter precursors of osteoblasts
Cellular and Genetic Therapy
Gene Therapy
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Molecular Biology oh the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science. Pages 1096,1097,1100.
Medicine. 17th edition. Pages 3208.
Byers PH. Osteogenesis imperfecta: perspectives and opportunities. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2000 Dec;12(6):603-9.
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Mitsuo Yamauchi and Marnisa Sricholpech (2012). “Lysine post-translational modifications of collagen”. Arch
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Rama Garimella, Sarah E. Tague, Jianghong Zhang, Frank Belibi, Niru Nahar, Ben Hua Sun, Karl Insogna, Jinxi
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Eva Grimaud, Luc Soubigou, Séverine Couillaud, Patrick Coipeau, Anne Moreau, Nobert Passuti, François Gouin,
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(RANKL)/Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Ratio Is Increased in Severe Osteolysis”. Arch 163: 2021-2031.
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Francis Glorieux, Peter Byers, Holly Cintas, Naomi Lynn Gerber, Horacio Plotkin, David Rowe, Richard Wenstrup,
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