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Transcript
Chemical Building Blocks
Atomic theories, models and
electronic structure
QUIZ: ½ sheet of paper
 An analyst measured a 3.3 x 10-2 L sample and
found it weighed 385 mg. Report its density in
g/mL. (Proper SF)
 Give an example of the ff.






A colloid
A pure substance
An intensive property
An extensive property
A chemical property
Parts of the atom (3pts., bonus of 1 pt. each for other
subatomic particles)
History of the Atomic Theory
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
1. Matter is composed of extremely small
particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element are identical,
having the same size, mass and chemical
properties. The atoms of one element are
different from the atoms of all other elements.
3. Compounds are composed of atoms of
different elements combined in fixed
proportions.
4. Chemical reactions only involve the
rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created
or destroyed in chemical reactions.
Cathode Ray Tube
Cathode ray tube television
Radioactivity
(Uranium compound)
Atomic Models
Plum pudding model
Rutherford’s gold foil experiment
Rutherford’s atomic model
Discovery of the Neutron
Chadwick’s equation:
Parts of the atom
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
Atomic number and mass number
isotopes
Test Yourself!
 How many neutrons are there in the 90Sr
nucleus?
 A rubidium isotope has 50 neutrons. What is
its mass no.?
 How many neutrons does 90Mo have?
 How many neutrons are in bromine-81?
 Which of the following isotopes are of the same
element? Name the isotopes.
90
37
X
90
35
X
88
37
X
88
38
X
93
38
X
Electromagnetic spectrum
Photoelectric effect
Einstein
Continuous vs. Line Spectra
Bohr’s Model
Allowed energy states
Energy is quantized (flame test)
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
An observer always has an effect on the
observed
Location and momentum of electron
Schrodinger’s wave equations: quantum
numbers (n, l, m, ms)
Orbitals
Possible orientations of d-orbitals
The f orbitals
Orbital energy levels in hrdrogen atom
Energy only depends on principal quantum number n
n=3
n=2
n=1
Orbital energy levels in multi-electron
atom
Energy depends on n and l
n=3 l = 2
n=3 l = 0
n=2 l = 0
n=1 l = 0
n=3 l = 1
n=2 l = 1
Outermost subshell containing electrons
Additional exercises
 For n=4, what are the possible values of l
and ml?
 Which of the following are permissible
sets of quantum numbers for an electron
in a hydrogen atom? (n,l,ml)




(2,2,-2)
(4,3,-1)
(1,0,0)
(6,3,-4)