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Warm Up List any Greek contributions or anything you already know about Ancient Greece. Geography Small overall area compared to other early civilizations Important natural barriers Mountains-isolation Seas-key to trading The location and barriers allowed Greeks to practice their own ways of life without very much outside influence Minoan Civilization Formed on the island of Crete Crete was the first to develop Bronze in Greece Minoans were not Greek, but part of the Greek empire Greatly influenced Greek culture Knossos Most important place in Minoan civilization Center of Trade Suddenly the civilization collapsed Most likely due to invasion from Mycenaean's Mycenaean Civilization Mainland Greeks from Mycenae Developed the first Greek government Monarchy Formed small independent states Loose alliance with each other Extensive trade network Conquered most of the islands surrounding Greece Supreme military power Led the Trojan War against the city of Troy Trojan War Fought between Mycenae and Troy King Agamemnon was the leader of the Mycenaean forces Achilles One of the greatest heroes of Greek mythology and one of the greatest fighters Helen of Troy Once the wife of King Menelaus, but loved the prince of Troy Paris Prince of Troy who took Helen away from Menelaus The Trojan Horse Greatest wartime trick to ever take place Great Stories and Myths Homer Greek poet and epic storyteller Epic: a long poem involving gods and heroes Iliad and the Odyssey Greatest stories ever told by Homer about mythology and great heroes performing extraordinary tasks Odysseus Traveler and great seafarer; Traveled through the Aegean on his quest home encountering many legends and monsters in Greek myth. Vocabulary Define the following terms using the textbook (pgs. 123-139). Write in your notebooks Aegean Sea Black Sea Bronze Age Crete Minoan Mycenaean Homer Ionia Epic Poem Arête Polis Acropolis Agora Hoplite Phalanx Tyrant Democracy Oligarchy Helot Ephor Characteristics of Greek Civilization Intensive agricultural techniques Specialization of labor Cities A social hierarchy Organized religion and education Development of complex forms of economic exchange Development of new technologies Advanced development of the arts. (This can include writing.) Specialization Greek wealth, especially in Athens, allowed for much specialization in cultural areas Architecture Art and Theater Literature Philosophy Athletes Shipping Silver mining and silversmiths Art and Theater Central character (the tragic hero) suffers some serious misfortune that is logically connected with the hero’s actions (the tragic flaw) Most popular Greek playwrights: Aeschylus-focused on the role of individual actors Sophocles-Known for his treatment of the individual and addressing complex issues Euripides-Bold and disrespectful Agriculture Good climate, but bad terrain (very mountainous) –Hilly ground: grapes –Rocky soil: olives –Good soil: corn and wheat Sea was EXTREMELY important –Homer describes various fishing methods using hooks, nets, and harpoons in both the Iliad and the Odyssey Economic Exchange Greek colonization did not produce a centralized imperial state, but it did sponsor more communication, interaction, and exchange than ever before among people of the Mediterranean Greek language and cultural traditions spread throughout the Mediterranean basin The polis was the most important element in economic exchange Economic Exchange City-states were usually built on two levels –On the hilltop was the acropolis and below was the living and business area The market area was called the agora where trade took place Trade included : Ivory and gems, Elephants, Silk, Wool, Purple dye, and Grain were the main items traded New Technologies Archimedes Greek mathematician and engineer Discovered the principle of the lever and the importance of the fulcrum “Give me a lever and I can move the world” New Technologies Hippocrates “Father of Medicine” Based his medical practice on observations and on the study of the human body Believed that illness had a physical and a rational explanation Religion They constructed myths that related the stories of the gods, their relations with one another, and their roles in bringing the world into its present state Zeus’s court included many deities who had various responsibilities Religion Zeus-King of the Gods; God of Thunder; Symbol: Eagle Poseidon-Brother of Zeus and Hades; God of the Sea; Symbol: Trident Hades-Brother of Zeus and Poseidon; God of the Underworld; Symbol: Helm/Helmet Athena-Goddess of Wisdom and Strategy; Symbol: Owl Ares-God of War; Symbol: Spear Religion Aphrodite-Goddess of Beauty; Symbol: Seashell and Dove Apollo-Twin of Artemis; God of Music and Prophecy; Symbol: Lyre Artemis-Twin of Apollo; Goddess of the Hunt; Symbol: Bow and Arrow Demeter-Goddess of Agriculture; Symbol: Wheat Dionysus-God of Wine and Joy; Symbol: Flute and Wine Barrels Religion Hephaestus-God of Fire; Symbol: Fire or Hammer Hera-Wife of Zeus; Goddess of Marriage; Symbol: Tiara or Scepter Hermes-Messenger of the Gods; Symbol: Caduceus or Winged Sandals Hestia-Goddess of the Hearth (Home); Symbol: Fireplace Cities: The Polis The city-state or polis was originally a fortified site that provided refuge in war or other emergencies They developed independently of each other –Different traditions, economies, political systems, etc. Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes are examples Architecture The architecture of ancient Greece is the basis for virtually all Western architectural developments 3 Orders of design in Greek architecture: Doric-Parthenon Ionic-Statue of Zeus at Olympia Corinthian-Very fancy and was used much later in Greece Parthenon Architecture One of the greatest structures built in Ancient Greece Constructed atop the Acropolis in Athens as a Temple for Athena Temple of Zeus One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Columns Greece was most famous for the columns they constructed Greek columns are still used in buildings all over the world today! All Ancient Greece architecture served as a symbol of order and harmony for the Greeks 8 Pillars of Greek Wisdom Humanism-Be proud of your human abilities and believe in your capacity to achieve great things The Pursuit of Excellence-Try to be more today than you were yesterday; more tomorrow than you were today The Practice of Moderation-Beware of going to extremes, because in them lies danger Self-Knowledge-Identify and understand your weaknesses and strengths 8 Pillars of Greek Wisdom Rationalism-Search for the truth by using the power of your mind Restless Curiosity-Seek to know what things really are, not merely what they seem to be The Love of Freedom-Only if we are free can we find fulfillment Individualism-Take pride in who you are as a unique individual Activity Directions Your group is responsible for the remaining 7 documents. Using the numbered cards that were placed at your table: Person number 1: Read the quote to the group Person number 2: Lead a discussion about the quote with everyone else contributing their thoughts. Person number 3: Read the paragraph about the Greek pillar of wisdom to the group Person number 4: Lead a discussion of the questions regarding the paragraph with all other group members contributing their thoughts. After the reading and discussion each group member needs to fillout the It Says, I Say, And So… graphic organizer. After the first pillar is completed repeat with the other documents, rotating the assignment of the group members with each document.