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Transcript
MRS. CONTRERAS
Language Arts
9th Grade – Eng I Gifted Honors
Room C209
Home Learning
PLACE COMPLETED
ASSIGNMENT(S) IN
HOMEWORK BOX BEFORE
THE BELL RINGS!
• Current event (newspaper/magazine/journal)
response & stapled article
• Revised paragraph (significance of
Gilgamesh’s quest)
• Short & Extended responses
Weekly Forecast
9/4/06 – 9/8/06
•
•
•
•
•
Monday – Holiday
Tuesday – Review Egyptian cultural characteristics,
speaker in "Book of the Dead" pg 52. metaphor in
"Adoration of the Disk“ pg 54
Wednesday – WRAP (1st Per Only). Egyptian New
Kingdom poetry. Review speaker, cultural
characteristics in "I'm going downstream on
Kingswater Canal" pg 56. metaphor in "Whenever I
leave you, I go out of breath" pg 58.
Thursday – Visit from Ms.Greenberg (databases &
electronic resources available)
Friday – Visit/tour Media Center; Research ancient
Egyptian alphabet & pyramid construction for
creative home learning assignment (Lit.book pg 60)
Home Learning
•
•
•
•
•
By Monday, 9/11:
Create your own “Book of the Dead” burial papyrus. Imagine yourself as one of
Egypt’s greatest pharaohs. In your chapter of the “Book of the Dead,” how would
you address the afterlife? When did you reign? What elements of your life will we
see on your papyrus? What is your prayer concerning the afterlife? On the sheet
provided, sketch out a burial message using Egyptian Hieroglyphics. Be sure to
fill up the entire papyrus with artwork (the contents of your burial chamber, your
sarcophagus, etc.) as sample seen in class. Use glitter to resemble gold!!!
Group Research & Creative Project: Research ancient Egyptian pyramid
architecture, particularly the attention given to distracting looters from reaching
burial chambers. Create your very own pyramid model cutaway. ¼ or ½ of the
pyramid should be removable, allowing us to see passages leading to your burial
chamber. Because you took precautions to guard your pyramid, be sure to place
a curse on potential looters as part of your pyramid text (hieroglyphics &
translation). When submitting group project, be sure to write all names and attach
research material (copies/printouts) used for project.
First four volunteers to stay after school (must be willing to commit to this Friday
& next Monday) to design class backdrop will receive extra credit.
Note similarities & differences between Gilgamesh flood story (Mesopotamian)
and "Noah and the Flood” pg 70-73 using Venn Diagram.
Chronicle/take notes on history of Israel through excerpts from the Torah/Bible
(see next slide).
Have a great week!
Hebrew Culture
Reading Resources…
•
•
•
•
•
•
On Hebrew Culture…
Flood Story: Flood 1, Flood 2
Abraham (Patriarch of the Jewish people) leaves Ur, goes to
Egypt, leaves Egypt.
Egypt: Joseph & Pharaoh's Dream, Egyptian Pharaoh exalts
Joseph, Joseph & Family Reunited, Pharaoh welcomes
Joseph's family to Egypt, New Egyptian Pharaoh hates
Israelites, Moses is born, Moses goes back to Egypt,
Passover tradition; 10th Plague & freedom
Jerusalem: History 1 History 2
Babylon: History 1 History 2 Babylon's King
Nebuchadrezzar and his relationship to Israel,
Nebuchadrezzar & Dream, Daniel is exalted,
Hebrew migration (Ur, Egypt, Canaan)
Old Kingdom
•Thebes
Middle & New
Kingdom
•Ancient Egypt was located in the northeast of Africa. Its
placement influenced Egyptian life like the Nile River valley.
•The Nile River would flood ever year, from June to October,
allowing Egyptians to produce good crops. Each flooding would
add a layer of fertile soil, creating a narrow strip of land for
farming.
•Due to this new layer, every year, the Egyptians have been able to
farm in the Nile River Valley for over 6,000 years.
•The Nile River served many purposes. Besides being extremely
helpful for with their crops, it also served as a trade and travel
route.
•Ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two
types of land, the ‘Black Land' and the ‘Red Land'.
•The ‘Black Land' was the fertile land near the Nile. This land was
used to grow the crops of the ancient Egyptians. This was the
only land in ancient Egypt that could be farmed.
•The ‘Red Land' was the infertile desert that protected Egypt.
These deserts separated ancient Egypt from nearby countries and
invading armies. They also provided the ancient Egyptians with
precious metals and semi-precious stones.
Ancient Egypt
•Literature
•Art
•Religion
•Pharaohs
•Kingdoms
Egyptian
Literature
• Ancient Egyptian Literature
encompassed many subjects
and dates from the times of
the Old Kingdom (2660 BC)
into the Greco-Roman period
(476 AD).
• The religious literature of
ancient Egypt includes gods,
mythological and magical
texts.
• Literature took on the forms
of stories, wisdom text,
poems, biographical,
historical, scientific treatises,
including mathematical and
medical texts.
Old Kingdom Literature:
•Pyramid texts: to ensure
dead rulers place in the
afterlife.
•Hymns & daily offering
rituals.
Middle Kingdom Literature:
•Hymns
•Private autobiographies
•Incantations
•Coffin texts and papyrus
Egyptian Art
•
•
•
•
•
Egyptian art from any time
period is the same style:
frontalism.
The frontalism style meant that
the character(s) face(s) were
always drawn in profile, but the
body was drawn in full. The legs
were turned to the same side as
the head, with one foot placed in
front of the other side.
Every painting or sculpture
stands or sits with a formal
posture. The body is stiff but the
face is calm.
Egyptians used this artistic form
for thousands of years.
They even had different
guidelines for drawing pharaohs,
gods, animals, and slaves.
Ma’ at and Isis and The Tree of Life
• Ma’ at is the goddess of truth and
justice. She is kneeling before Isis,
the goddess seated on the throne.
• The tree of life represents the
stages of human life.
• It starts at the lower right-hand
corner and runs counter-clockwise.
– The light gray bird symbolizes
infancy
– The red bird symbolizes
childhood
– The green bird symbolizes
youth
– The blue bird symbolizes
adulthood
– The orange bird symbolizes old
age
Myth of Osiris
• Most important myth in
Egyptian culture
• Osiris, a benevolent god,
is killed by brother Set
who kills him for the
throne (50).
• Osiris is brought back to
life by Isis, his sister (50)
• Osiris becomes lord of
the otherworld (50).
Osiris & Isis
Courtesy of Google Images
The Religion of Egypt
• Egyptians believed that all
forms of life, including
animals, had an afterlife.
• In the afterlife, people were
judged. The person’s heart
would tell whether the
person had lied, murdered,
or done good in their
previous life.
• If the person’s heart was
bad then the heart would be
given to a monster called
eater of the dead. If the
person had a good heart
then they would have
eternal happiness.
The Religion of Egypt (Continued)
• Egyptians developed
mummification to preserve the
body on its journey to the
afterlife.
• Tombs would be supplied with
food, clothing, tools and
weapons to be used in the
afterlife.
• Because religion played such
a big role in the life of the
Egyptians, the educational
system prepared scribes.
• Scribes would learn how to
read and write so that they can
work for the government. The
schools were usually attached
to temples
Pharaohs
• Egypt’s dynastic rulers
were religious and
political leaders.
• They were regarded as
gods.
• Tombs and temples
were built in their honor.
• Later on they were
referred to as
“Pharaohs” which
means “Great House”.
• Pharaohs were the
heads of government,
serving as judges, high
priest and generals of
the army.
History
• By 3200 BC the farming
villages that developed
along the upper and lower
Nile River had been
divided into separate
kingdoms, Upper & Lower
Egypt (Applebee 20).
• King Menes unified these
two regions into one
kingdom around 3100 BC,
forging the first dynasty
(20).
• A dynasty is a family of
rulers who passes on the
right to rule to the sons or
daughters.
• The dynasties were then
divided to three kingdoms:
Old, Middle, and the New
kingdom
The Old Kingdom
2660 – 2180 BC
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pharaohs built pyramids to be royal
tombs (20).
Society was stratified.
Upper class people included the
pharaoh and his ruling family
(considered divine), wealthy
landowners, government officials,
high-ranking priest, military leaders.
Middle class included merchants,
craftspeople, artisans and other skilled
workers (20).
Lower class included farm workers,
which comprised the majority of the
population. These citizens also
worked on building projects (20).
Slaves were the lowest on the social
scale. They were assigned heavy
labor and lowly chores. They could
marry, own property, and sometimes
purchase their freedom (20).
Women in upper and middle classes
almost had the same rights as men.
They could own land, businesses, and
even propose marriage. Upper-class
women like Queen Ahhotep,
Hatshepsut & Cleopatra ruled (20).
Towards the end of the kingdom the
Pharaohs grew weaker and the nobles
grew greater in power. Civil wars
divide Egypt as rivals and would battle
for control of the land (20).
The Middle Kingdom
2080 – 1640 BC
•
•
•
•
•
This kingdom began in Thebes when a
family of ruling nobles were able to gain
control of the entire kingdom (20).
Amenemhet I (Twelfth dynasty)
strengthened the realm politically and
commercially. He created trade and
conquered the African kingdom of
Nubia (20).
After the prosperity of the middle
kingdom, weak rulers and internal strife
caused it to weaken (20).
Nobles and priest began to weaken the
power of the pharaoh. Foreigners from
Asia also known as Hyksos arrived in
Egypt and started to introduce new war
tools. These tools were chariots and
compound bows (20).
The Hykos soon invaded and took over
Egypt. They ruled in lower Egypt for
more than 100 years. Then leaders of
upper Egypt got together and took the
Hykos out of power (20).
The New Kingdom
1570
–
1075
BC
• The New Kingdom began when
•
•
•
•
native Egyptian rulers banded
together to drive out the Hyksos
(20).
They fought with bronze weapons
and two-wheeled chariots (20).
Egypt became the world’s
strongest power (20).
The pharaohs came back to
power commanding a strict
control over the government. The
new Pharaohs created an empire
which is a form of government
where a single person rules over
many other people and their land.
Rulers included Thutmose III, who
expanded kingdom farther into
Africa, and Ramses II who formed
an alliance with the Hittites, living
in what today is Turkey (20).When
weaker pharaohs came into
power parts of the empire would
try and break away. In 1380 B.C.
and 1362 B.C. Amenhotep IV
tried to bring religious and social
change to Egypt.
• He believed in only one god
(monotheism) while Egyptians
believed in many gods
(polytheism).
• Amenhotep's one god was the
sun.
• He was not successful in
changing the people's belief.
After his death, priests
regained power, and Egypt
went back to their polytheistic
religion.
• Ramses II a pharaoh after
Amenhotep IV ordered the
construction of many temples
and monuments.
• There were many invasions in
Egypt that weakened the
empire and by 300 B.C. Egypt
was no longer runned by the
Egyptians.
The New Kingdom
(Continued)
Life
&
The Afterlife
Egyptian life was
dominated by a
focus on preparation
for the afterlife…
Art / Literature
Year
International Historical Context
3200 B.C
Egypt: Villages in the upper and
lower Nile River, separate
into two kingdoms, Upper
and Lower Egypt.
3100 B.C
Egypt: King Menes unites Upper
and Lower Egypt.
Egypt: Sumerians develop
cuneiform writing
3000 B.C
Egypt: Egyptians began
using hieroglyphics
writing
3000 B.C
Egypt: Old Kingdom (2660-2180)
Egypt: Earliest pyramid
texts.
2700 B.C
2080 B.C
Egypt: Middle Kingdom begins
due to the family of ruling nobles
in Thebes.
1640 B.C
Egypt: Hyksos conquer Egypt
after the Middle Kingdoms
prosperity.
1570 B.C
Egypt: The New Kingdom begins
when the Hyksos are no longer.
1500 B.C
Egypt: Egyptian Book of the
Dead assembled from earlier text
Egypt: Adoration of the Disk
(Hymn to Aten) composed.
1375 B.C
Oldest New Kingdom love
lyrics composed.
1300 B.C
1075 B.C
Egypt: The End og The New
th
Kingdom due to the 20 dynasty.
671 B.C
Egypt: Invasion in Egypt by the
Assyrians.
650 B.C
Egypt: Assyrian Empire at its
peak
Egypt: Ancient Egypt
civilization begins (was
one of the longest in the
west.)
300 B.C
Egypt: Cleopatra last queen
of Egypt
51 B.C
Egypt: Rosetta Stone is
found
1799
Egypt: Sir Austen Henry
Layard found ruins of
Ninevah, capital of
ancient Assyrian
1849
Egypt: Young Shepherd
found secluded caves
near The Dead Sea.
1947
•Thebes
Sources:
http://www.kestan.com/travel/nyc/images/2256%20Met%20Egyptian.jpg
http://thinkertoy.com/ancient/ttegypt04.jpg
http://www1.pvsd.k12.ca.us/library/egypt.gif
http://www.bibleandscience.com/history/images/pyramids.jpg
http://www.travel-to-egypt.net/images/TheGizaPlateau.jpg
The language of literature. Applebee N. Arthur,Bermudez B, Andrea,
Blau Sheridan, Caplan Rebekah, Elbow Peter, Hynds Susan, Langer A, Judith,
Marshall
McDougal Littel 2003,2003.
Egyptian Literature…
• Speaker: the voice in a work of literature that
speaks the ideas presented. The speaker is
not the writer but a creation of the writer. (like
narrator)
• Egyptian cultural characteristics:
* concern about the afterlife
* worship of a sun god
* delight in everyday life
“Book of the Dead”
pg 52
• Dramatic monologue: a literary form in which
the speaker addresses a silent or absent
listener in a moment of high intensity or deep
emotion, as if engaged in private
conversation.
• Prayers, hymns, and songs of praise, popular
early forms of literature, often take the form of
dramatic monologue
Ex: “Hail to thee, O my Divine Father
Osiris…” (52).
“Book of the Dead”
pg 52
• Petition/Prayer: “Grant that I may descend into the
Land of Eternity, according as that which was done
to thee with they father Atum, whose body did not
see corruption, nor did he himself see decay…Let
me not putrefy” (52).
• Identifies with Osiris: “I have never done that which
thou hatest, but have acclaimed thee among those
who love they Divine Essence” (52)
• Praise: “Hail to thee, O my father Osiris! Thou livest
with thy members. Thou didst not decay…” (52)
• Expectation: “My body shall be enduring, it shall not
perish…nor shall it be turned back whence it
entered into this Land of Eternity!” (53).
“Book of the Dead”
pg 52
• Moments of intensity
• Transformation: at the opening, the speaker is
identified as Osiris Nu. Nu becomes Osiris.
• Use of repetition
• Tone: reverent, pleading
Details
Subject
Images
Occasion
Diction
Audience
Language
Purpose
Syntax
Speaker
“Book of the Dead”
pg 52
• Note vocabulary: acclaimed, dynasty, sarcophagus,
pharaoh, crook, flail, ankh, frontalism
• Art Appreciation: burial papyrus for a nobleman,
Nakht, a scribe and priest under the New Kingdom
pharaoh Tuthmose IV.
• Nakht and his wife are shown standing in the garden
of their home. Note house with two roof vents for
cooling, pool with surrounding trees (bearing fruit),
Osiris is sitting (holding crook and flail, symbols of
authority/kingship), Isis is standing (holding the ankh,
symbol for life)
• Why include scenes from Nakht’s home on this burial
papyrus?
“Adoration of the Disk”
pg 54
• Speaker: we don’t know who this is until the last stanza
(Amenhotep IV - AKA: Akhenaten 1348-1336 BC)
• Tone: reverent, giving praise
Details
Subject
Images
Occasion
Diction
Audience
Language (metaph/pers)Purpose
Syntax
Speaker
• Art appreciation: Akhenaten, Nefertiti and oldest
daughter worship the sun god Aten.
• Validates class system & Egyptian culture (55)
• Vocabulary (libations)
“I’m going downstream on
Kingswater Canal” pg 57
• Speaker: unidentified woman
• Tone: joyful, great anticipation
Details
Subject
Images
Occasion
Diction
Audience
Language (simile)
Purpose
Syntax
Speaker
• Art appreciation: High official Kat-Tep and his wife,
Hetepheres. Note unusual side by side, equal height, &
different coloring depiction (56).
• Vocabulary (unguents)
“Whenever I leave you, I
go out of breath” pg 58
• Speaker: unidentified woman
• Tone: lonely, needy/great anticipation
Details
Subject
Images
Occasion
Diction
Audience
Language (simile/metaph)
Purpose
Syntax
Speaker
• Vocabulary (birdgall)
Review Questions…
• Which of the selections gave you the strongest sense of
the speaker as a person? Explain.
• While “I’m going downstream on Kingswater Canal” and
“Whenever I leave you, I go out of breath” both address
an absent beloved, what are some of the ways in which
the poems differ?
• The literature and art of ancient Egypt reveal a great
appreciation for everyday life and concerns about the
afterlife. How do these values compare with those of our
society?
FCAT Extended Response
Wednesday, 9/6/06
Describe three cultural characteristics of
ancient Egypt revealed through the literature.
Explain how these are revealed and support
your ideas with details you remember from
the works.
FCAT Short Response
Thursday, 9/7/06
Of the works read for homework, which
speaker seemed most interesting to you?
Support your answer adequately.