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MRS. CONTRERAS Language Arts 9th Grade – Eng I Gifted Honors Room C209 Home Learning PLACE COMPLETED ASSIGNMENT(S) IN HOMEWORK BOX BEFORE THE BELL RINGS! • Current event (newspaper/magazine/journal) response & stapled article • Revised paragraph (significance of Gilgamesh’s quest) • Short & Extended responses Weekly Forecast 9/4/06 – 9/8/06 • • • • • Monday – Holiday Tuesday – Review Egyptian cultural characteristics, speaker in "Book of the Dead" pg 52. metaphor in "Adoration of the Disk“ pg 54 Wednesday – WRAP (1st Per Only). Egyptian New Kingdom poetry. Review speaker, cultural characteristics in "I'm going downstream on Kingswater Canal" pg 56. metaphor in "Whenever I leave you, I go out of breath" pg 58. Thursday – Visit from Ms.Greenberg (databases & electronic resources available) Friday – Visit/tour Media Center; Research ancient Egyptian alphabet & pyramid construction for creative home learning assignment (Lit.book pg 60) Home Learning • • • • • By Monday, 9/11: Create your own “Book of the Dead” burial papyrus. Imagine yourself as one of Egypt’s greatest pharaohs. In your chapter of the “Book of the Dead,” how would you address the afterlife? When did you reign? What elements of your life will we see on your papyrus? What is your prayer concerning the afterlife? On the sheet provided, sketch out a burial message using Egyptian Hieroglyphics. Be sure to fill up the entire papyrus with artwork (the contents of your burial chamber, your sarcophagus, etc.) as sample seen in class. Use glitter to resemble gold!!! Group Research & Creative Project: Research ancient Egyptian pyramid architecture, particularly the attention given to distracting looters from reaching burial chambers. Create your very own pyramid model cutaway. ¼ or ½ of the pyramid should be removable, allowing us to see passages leading to your burial chamber. Because you took precautions to guard your pyramid, be sure to place a curse on potential looters as part of your pyramid text (hieroglyphics & translation). When submitting group project, be sure to write all names and attach research material (copies/printouts) used for project. First four volunteers to stay after school (must be willing to commit to this Friday & next Monday) to design class backdrop will receive extra credit. Note similarities & differences between Gilgamesh flood story (Mesopotamian) and "Noah and the Flood” pg 70-73 using Venn Diagram. Chronicle/take notes on history of Israel through excerpts from the Torah/Bible (see next slide). Have a great week! Hebrew Culture Reading Resources… • • • • • • On Hebrew Culture… Flood Story: Flood 1, Flood 2 Abraham (Patriarch of the Jewish people) leaves Ur, goes to Egypt, leaves Egypt. Egypt: Joseph & Pharaoh's Dream, Egyptian Pharaoh exalts Joseph, Joseph & Family Reunited, Pharaoh welcomes Joseph's family to Egypt, New Egyptian Pharaoh hates Israelites, Moses is born, Moses goes back to Egypt, Passover tradition; 10th Plague & freedom Jerusalem: History 1 History 2 Babylon: History 1 History 2 Babylon's King Nebuchadrezzar and his relationship to Israel, Nebuchadrezzar & Dream, Daniel is exalted, Hebrew migration (Ur, Egypt, Canaan) Old Kingdom •Thebes Middle & New Kingdom •Ancient Egypt was located in the northeast of Africa. Its placement influenced Egyptian life like the Nile River valley. •The Nile River would flood ever year, from June to October, allowing Egyptians to produce good crops. Each flooding would add a layer of fertile soil, creating a narrow strip of land for farming. •Due to this new layer, every year, the Egyptians have been able to farm in the Nile River Valley for over 6,000 years. •The Nile River served many purposes. Besides being extremely helpful for with their crops, it also served as a trade and travel route. •Ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two types of land, the ‘Black Land' and the ‘Red Land'. •The ‘Black Land' was the fertile land near the Nile. This land was used to grow the crops of the ancient Egyptians. This was the only land in ancient Egypt that could be farmed. •The ‘Red Land' was the infertile desert that protected Egypt. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from nearby countries and invading armies. They also provided the ancient Egyptians with precious metals and semi-precious stones. Ancient Egypt •Literature •Art •Religion •Pharaohs •Kingdoms Egyptian Literature • Ancient Egyptian Literature encompassed many subjects and dates from the times of the Old Kingdom (2660 BC) into the Greco-Roman period (476 AD). • The religious literature of ancient Egypt includes gods, mythological and magical texts. • Literature took on the forms of stories, wisdom text, poems, biographical, historical, scientific treatises, including mathematical and medical texts. Old Kingdom Literature: •Pyramid texts: to ensure dead rulers place in the afterlife. •Hymns & daily offering rituals. Middle Kingdom Literature: •Hymns •Private autobiographies •Incantations •Coffin texts and papyrus Egyptian Art • • • • • Egyptian art from any time period is the same style: frontalism. The frontalism style meant that the character(s) face(s) were always drawn in profile, but the body was drawn in full. The legs were turned to the same side as the head, with one foot placed in front of the other side. Every painting or sculpture stands or sits with a formal posture. The body is stiff but the face is calm. Egyptians used this artistic form for thousands of years. They even had different guidelines for drawing pharaohs, gods, animals, and slaves. Ma’ at and Isis and The Tree of Life • Ma’ at is the goddess of truth and justice. She is kneeling before Isis, the goddess seated on the throne. • The tree of life represents the stages of human life. • It starts at the lower right-hand corner and runs counter-clockwise. – The light gray bird symbolizes infancy – The red bird symbolizes childhood – The green bird symbolizes youth – The blue bird symbolizes adulthood – The orange bird symbolizes old age Myth of Osiris • Most important myth in Egyptian culture • Osiris, a benevolent god, is killed by brother Set who kills him for the throne (50). • Osiris is brought back to life by Isis, his sister (50) • Osiris becomes lord of the otherworld (50). Osiris & Isis Courtesy of Google Images The Religion of Egypt • Egyptians believed that all forms of life, including animals, had an afterlife. • In the afterlife, people were judged. The person’s heart would tell whether the person had lied, murdered, or done good in their previous life. • If the person’s heart was bad then the heart would be given to a monster called eater of the dead. If the person had a good heart then they would have eternal happiness. The Religion of Egypt (Continued) • Egyptians developed mummification to preserve the body on its journey to the afterlife. • Tombs would be supplied with food, clothing, tools and weapons to be used in the afterlife. • Because religion played such a big role in the life of the Egyptians, the educational system prepared scribes. • Scribes would learn how to read and write so that they can work for the government. The schools were usually attached to temples Pharaohs • Egypt’s dynastic rulers were religious and political leaders. • They were regarded as gods. • Tombs and temples were built in their honor. • Later on they were referred to as “Pharaohs” which means “Great House”. • Pharaohs were the heads of government, serving as judges, high priest and generals of the army. History • By 3200 BC the farming villages that developed along the upper and lower Nile River had been divided into separate kingdoms, Upper & Lower Egypt (Applebee 20). • King Menes unified these two regions into one kingdom around 3100 BC, forging the first dynasty (20). • A dynasty is a family of rulers who passes on the right to rule to the sons or daughters. • The dynasties were then divided to three kingdoms: Old, Middle, and the New kingdom The Old Kingdom 2660 – 2180 BC • • • • • • • • Pharaohs built pyramids to be royal tombs (20). Society was stratified. Upper class people included the pharaoh and his ruling family (considered divine), wealthy landowners, government officials, high-ranking priest, military leaders. Middle class included merchants, craftspeople, artisans and other skilled workers (20). Lower class included farm workers, which comprised the majority of the population. These citizens also worked on building projects (20). Slaves were the lowest on the social scale. They were assigned heavy labor and lowly chores. They could marry, own property, and sometimes purchase their freedom (20). Women in upper and middle classes almost had the same rights as men. They could own land, businesses, and even propose marriage. Upper-class women like Queen Ahhotep, Hatshepsut & Cleopatra ruled (20). Towards the end of the kingdom the Pharaohs grew weaker and the nobles grew greater in power. Civil wars divide Egypt as rivals and would battle for control of the land (20). The Middle Kingdom 2080 – 1640 BC • • • • • This kingdom began in Thebes when a family of ruling nobles were able to gain control of the entire kingdom (20). Amenemhet I (Twelfth dynasty) strengthened the realm politically and commercially. He created trade and conquered the African kingdom of Nubia (20). After the prosperity of the middle kingdom, weak rulers and internal strife caused it to weaken (20). Nobles and priest began to weaken the power of the pharaoh. Foreigners from Asia also known as Hyksos arrived in Egypt and started to introduce new war tools. These tools were chariots and compound bows (20). The Hykos soon invaded and took over Egypt. They ruled in lower Egypt for more than 100 years. Then leaders of upper Egypt got together and took the Hykos out of power (20). The New Kingdom 1570 – 1075 BC • The New Kingdom began when • • • • native Egyptian rulers banded together to drive out the Hyksos (20). They fought with bronze weapons and two-wheeled chariots (20). Egypt became the world’s strongest power (20). The pharaohs came back to power commanding a strict control over the government. The new Pharaohs created an empire which is a form of government where a single person rules over many other people and their land. Rulers included Thutmose III, who expanded kingdom farther into Africa, and Ramses II who formed an alliance with the Hittites, living in what today is Turkey (20).When weaker pharaohs came into power parts of the empire would try and break away. In 1380 B.C. and 1362 B.C. Amenhotep IV tried to bring religious and social change to Egypt. • He believed in only one god (monotheism) while Egyptians believed in many gods (polytheism). • Amenhotep's one god was the sun. • He was not successful in changing the people's belief. After his death, priests regained power, and Egypt went back to their polytheistic religion. • Ramses II a pharaoh after Amenhotep IV ordered the construction of many temples and monuments. • There were many invasions in Egypt that weakened the empire and by 300 B.C. Egypt was no longer runned by the Egyptians. The New Kingdom (Continued) Life & The Afterlife Egyptian life was dominated by a focus on preparation for the afterlife… Art / Literature Year International Historical Context 3200 B.C Egypt: Villages in the upper and lower Nile River, separate into two kingdoms, Upper and Lower Egypt. 3100 B.C Egypt: King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt. Egypt: Sumerians develop cuneiform writing 3000 B.C Egypt: Egyptians began using hieroglyphics writing 3000 B.C Egypt: Old Kingdom (2660-2180) Egypt: Earliest pyramid texts. 2700 B.C 2080 B.C Egypt: Middle Kingdom begins due to the family of ruling nobles in Thebes. 1640 B.C Egypt: Hyksos conquer Egypt after the Middle Kingdoms prosperity. 1570 B.C Egypt: The New Kingdom begins when the Hyksos are no longer. 1500 B.C Egypt: Egyptian Book of the Dead assembled from earlier text Egypt: Adoration of the Disk (Hymn to Aten) composed. 1375 B.C Oldest New Kingdom love lyrics composed. 1300 B.C 1075 B.C Egypt: The End og The New th Kingdom due to the 20 dynasty. 671 B.C Egypt: Invasion in Egypt by the Assyrians. 650 B.C Egypt: Assyrian Empire at its peak Egypt: Ancient Egypt civilization begins (was one of the longest in the west.) 300 B.C Egypt: Cleopatra last queen of Egypt 51 B.C Egypt: Rosetta Stone is found 1799 Egypt: Sir Austen Henry Layard found ruins of Ninevah, capital of ancient Assyrian 1849 Egypt: Young Shepherd found secluded caves near The Dead Sea. 1947 •Thebes Sources: http://www.kestan.com/travel/nyc/images/2256%20Met%20Egyptian.jpg http://thinkertoy.com/ancient/ttegypt04.jpg http://www1.pvsd.k12.ca.us/library/egypt.gif http://www.bibleandscience.com/history/images/pyramids.jpg http://www.travel-to-egypt.net/images/TheGizaPlateau.jpg The language of literature. Applebee N. Arthur,Bermudez B, Andrea, Blau Sheridan, Caplan Rebekah, Elbow Peter, Hynds Susan, Langer A, Judith, Marshall McDougal Littel 2003,2003. Egyptian Literature… • Speaker: the voice in a work of literature that speaks the ideas presented. The speaker is not the writer but a creation of the writer. (like narrator) • Egyptian cultural characteristics: * concern about the afterlife * worship of a sun god * delight in everyday life “Book of the Dead” pg 52 • Dramatic monologue: a literary form in which the speaker addresses a silent or absent listener in a moment of high intensity or deep emotion, as if engaged in private conversation. • Prayers, hymns, and songs of praise, popular early forms of literature, often take the form of dramatic monologue Ex: “Hail to thee, O my Divine Father Osiris…” (52). “Book of the Dead” pg 52 • Petition/Prayer: “Grant that I may descend into the Land of Eternity, according as that which was done to thee with they father Atum, whose body did not see corruption, nor did he himself see decay…Let me not putrefy” (52). • Identifies with Osiris: “I have never done that which thou hatest, but have acclaimed thee among those who love they Divine Essence” (52) • Praise: “Hail to thee, O my father Osiris! Thou livest with thy members. Thou didst not decay…” (52) • Expectation: “My body shall be enduring, it shall not perish…nor shall it be turned back whence it entered into this Land of Eternity!” (53). “Book of the Dead” pg 52 • Moments of intensity • Transformation: at the opening, the speaker is identified as Osiris Nu. Nu becomes Osiris. • Use of repetition • Tone: reverent, pleading Details Subject Images Occasion Diction Audience Language Purpose Syntax Speaker “Book of the Dead” pg 52 • Note vocabulary: acclaimed, dynasty, sarcophagus, pharaoh, crook, flail, ankh, frontalism • Art Appreciation: burial papyrus for a nobleman, Nakht, a scribe and priest under the New Kingdom pharaoh Tuthmose IV. • Nakht and his wife are shown standing in the garden of their home. Note house with two roof vents for cooling, pool with surrounding trees (bearing fruit), Osiris is sitting (holding crook and flail, symbols of authority/kingship), Isis is standing (holding the ankh, symbol for life) • Why include scenes from Nakht’s home on this burial papyrus? “Adoration of the Disk” pg 54 • Speaker: we don’t know who this is until the last stanza (Amenhotep IV - AKA: Akhenaten 1348-1336 BC) • Tone: reverent, giving praise Details Subject Images Occasion Diction Audience Language (metaph/pers)Purpose Syntax Speaker • Art appreciation: Akhenaten, Nefertiti and oldest daughter worship the sun god Aten. • Validates class system & Egyptian culture (55) • Vocabulary (libations) “I’m going downstream on Kingswater Canal” pg 57 • Speaker: unidentified woman • Tone: joyful, great anticipation Details Subject Images Occasion Diction Audience Language (simile) Purpose Syntax Speaker • Art appreciation: High official Kat-Tep and his wife, Hetepheres. Note unusual side by side, equal height, & different coloring depiction (56). • Vocabulary (unguents) “Whenever I leave you, I go out of breath” pg 58 • Speaker: unidentified woman • Tone: lonely, needy/great anticipation Details Subject Images Occasion Diction Audience Language (simile/metaph) Purpose Syntax Speaker • Vocabulary (birdgall) Review Questions… • Which of the selections gave you the strongest sense of the speaker as a person? Explain. • While “I’m going downstream on Kingswater Canal” and “Whenever I leave you, I go out of breath” both address an absent beloved, what are some of the ways in which the poems differ? • The literature and art of ancient Egypt reveal a great appreciation for everyday life and concerns about the afterlife. How do these values compare with those of our society? FCAT Extended Response Wednesday, 9/6/06 Describe three cultural characteristics of ancient Egypt revealed through the literature. Explain how these are revealed and support your ideas with details you remember from the works. FCAT Short Response Thursday, 9/7/06 Of the works read for homework, which speaker seemed most interesting to you? Support your answer adequately.