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Transcript
Bellringer
How
didNorthern
the Uncle Tom’s
Increased
Cabin affect
the
United
abolitionists
desire
to abolish
slavery
States?
Democracy is a form of
government
the
Democracy
is where
a government
Define
Democracy.
peoplethe
have
the power
where
people
have a say
Popular
Sovereignty
is when
What
is popular
the citizens in the territories
sovereignty
and how was
vote on slavery
it
used in the Antebellum
period?
High
HighTariffs
Tariffsare
aremeant
meantto
to
High
tariffs
(taxes)
on
foreign
increase
the
cost
imported
increase
thehigh
costofof
imported
How
do
protective
goods
increase
their cost,
making
products.
As
a
result,
products. As a result,domestic
domestic
American
madewill
products
cheaper,
tariffs
impact
United
manufacturers
produce
manufacturers
willthe
produce
creating
demand
for American
more
thereby
moreto
tosell,
sell,States?
therebyincreasing
increasing
goods
American
AmericanManufacturing
Manufacturing
Bellringer
Why
did Lincoln
want
He wanted
to heal the
nationto be
generous
soon
to rebuild to the South
during Reconstruction?
North- Improved economy but
lost
364,000
men Civil War
How
did the
impact the North? The
South- cities and property
destroyed, South?
lost 290,000 men
Bellringer
What
was
purpose
of
To restrict
thethe
rights
of the
the
JimAmerican
Crow laws
and the
African
community
Black Codes?
Corruption
Credit
Mobilier
Scandal,
Salary
What
was
president
Grant’s
Grab, reconstruction
thefts
presidency
marked
by?
Give an example
Reconstruction
Reconstruction- Effort by the Federal government
to repair the damage to the South caused by the
Civil War 1865-1877
Civil War Impact
North
-North Economy grew due to
government demand
-lost 364,000 soldiers
-Union Preserved
South
-Destroyed cities and
infrastructures
-lost 290,000 soldiers
-Slaves were freed
Southern Society
The 13th Amendment frees the slaves so the South now has homeless, jobless sand hungry blacks
looking for work. Plantation owners struggled with the terms of losing $3 Billion in labor.
Reconstruction
Immediately after the Civil War ended, debate started on the
questions of rebuilding:
Reconstruction-
-How and when should Southern States be allowed to rejoin
the Union?
Federal government's
effort to rebuild after the
Civil War
-Should the South be punished for its actions, or forgiven for a
quick recovery?
-Would freed blacks have equal rights?
Lincoln’s 10% Plan
Lincoln pushed his 10% plan which included:
-Full Forgiveness in exchange for allegiance to the Union
-once 10% of a states population had sworn allegiance, they could start a constitutional
convention to rejoin the Union
-States would fully rejoin the Union with all rights returned
-Wade-Davis bill forces states to formally outlaw slavery
Lincoln’s goal was to HEAL the nation, not punish the South
Lincoln’s Assassination
On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated by John
Wilkes Booth. The assassination ruined all plans of
reconstruction, and plunged the political arena into
Chaos.
A manhunt for all those responsible ensured and the
government offered a $100,000 reward!
Johnson and Impeachment
According to Congress, the Reconstruction plans of
Lincoln, and his successor Johnson, were too
generous. Congress chose to Impeach Johnson for
high crimes and misdemeanors of the Tenure of Office
Act, which says the Congress must approve all
Government appointments and dismissals.
What is an Impeachment?
The Senate is allowed to impeach the president,
which means they can charge the President with
wrongdoings in office.
The Senate, along with the chief Justice, become the
Jury and judge. The Senate can remove the President
from office with a 2/3rds vote.
Impeachcharge a
government official
with wrongdoing in
office
Radical Reconstruction
After the Impeachment, Johnson’s political power was
gone. Congress enacted a Radical plan:
-the south would be divided into 5 military
districts controlled by the US military
-New state governments must allow African
American males the right to vote
-South must ratify the 13th and 14th amendments
-Confederate supporters were barred from voting
This means Federal troops will be in
the south, occupying them and
enforcing federal laws and changes=
martial law
Radical Reconstruction
Congress passed a plan to Punish the South,
which will extend the healing time of the Union
Review: Emancipation Proclamation
-Only slaves in confederate areas were
freed
-Could not be enforced
-did not go far enough in freeing all slaves
Emancipation
ProclamationPresidential decree,
effective January 1, 1863,
that freed slaves in
Confederate held territory
th
13
Amendment
By reelecting Lincoln, Americans showed their approval of his war policy and his
stand against slavery. In February 1865 Congress took it a step further and
passed the 13th Amendment:
“Neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment
for crime… shall exist within the United States…”
Slavery was officially abolished.
th
14
Amendment
After President Johnson vetoed a Civil Rights Act, the Congress took matters into
their own hands to pass the 14th Amendment.
“All persons born or naturalized in
ththe US are citizens… No state shall make or
enforce laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens… Nor
shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property…”
The 14 Amendment
cancels out the Dred Scott v
The Fourteenth amendment has been used many times to support equality under
the laws. It became a requirement
of Southern
states to ratify (approve) the 14
Sanford
case!!
th
Amendment.
th
15
Amendment
As African Americans across the south got used to the idea of being freed, they
began demanding the right to vote. The 15th Amendment secured their suffrage:
No citizen may be denied the right to vote “By the United States on account of
race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
Soon the African American community in the South were voting in supportive
southerners and African Americans themselves.
(republicans)
Texas v White
As reconstruction began to be enforced, there was plenty of opposition. Texas v
White even made it to the Supreme Court, where the justices upheld the right of the
Federal government to enforce reconstruction laws. The case further strengthened
the powers of the Federal government over the states
Freedman’s Lives
Black Americans in the South struggled to figure out what freedom meant to them. Many groups
were created, with government funds, to help African Americans:
-Black Schools opened including 30 African American colleges
-Freedman’s Bureau organized clothing, medical supplies. Education and meals
Dissent
Who would have
made this poster?
Review: Party opinions
Democrats- mostly pro-slavery, pro-secession southerners. Democrats resisted
reconstruction and black rights.
Republicans- Mostly support African American equality. Dominated Congress during
Reconstruction, forcing through the 14th and 15th Amendments.
Black Codes and Jim Crow
As reconstruction continued, the southerners found ways to restrict
the rights of the black Southerners.
Black CodesLaws that restricted
freedman’s rights
Jim Crow- system of
laws that segregated
public services by race
starting in 1890s
Black Codes
Curfews- black people could not gather after sunset
Vagrancy laws- Freedmen convicted of vagrancy, or not working, could be fined,
whipped or sold for a year’s labor
Labor Contracts- Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. If
they quit early they lost all the wages they had earned
Land Restrictions- Freed people could only rent or own in rural areas
Fifteenth Amendment
During Reconstruction, the 15th Amendment granted African American MEN the right to vote.. Their
votes brought in a number of African American Representative sand politicians. It also guaranteed more
Republican victories.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags were pro-reconstruction and promoted equal rights, suffrage and helped Freed
Blacks.
CarpetbaggersNorthern Republicans who
moved to helped rebuild
the South
Scalawags
Southern Republicans who
were seen as a traitor
In other words…
Many southerners resented the fact that the government wanted to ‘fix’ their society. However, in
these reconstruction era governments, African Americans slowly earned rights and improving
standards of living. However, implementation of the black codes kept most of these Africans in near
slave like conditions.
The “New South”
The 13th Amendment had freed the slaves, however new problems arose.
Planters still had land to be planted, but no labor force. Former slaves had
their own labor, but no land. The result was new ways of farming called
Sharecropping and Tenant farming.
Sharecropping
Sharecroppers farmed a portion of the planter’s land. As payment, the family was
promised a share of the crop during harvest, 1/3 to ½ of the yield. Sharecroppers
worked under strict supervision, and were often punished or fined.
Often a family’s share of the crop was not enough to pay living expenses. Many
sharecroppers ended up further in debt to the planter.
Tenant Farming
Tenant farmers rented land from the planters. They could decide what to plant and
when to work. They had more freedom than a sharecropper and held a higher
status than their sharecropping peers.
Poverty Cycle
Sharecropping and Tenant farming created a cycle of debt in the south for blacks and whites alike.
This year’s profits went to pay for last year’s bills. Many Tenant farmers eventually returned to
sharecropping because they were unable to pay the high prices at the rural stores operated by land
owners.
Cities and Infrastructure
Some educated southerners encouraged the growth of industry and
transportation systems in the South. Atlanta, ruined by Sherman, was rebuilt as a
major city based on manufacturing and trade. The South was also focuses on
rebuilding their railroads. By 1872, southern railroads were rebuilt and an
additional 3,300 miles laid out.
President Grant and corruption
Grant was elected in 1868 and he instantly began to work with Congress to enforce Radical Reconstruction. Despite
efforts to help the South, Grant’s presidency is marked by corruption:
-credit Mobilier Scandal- railroad officials bribed congress to gain huge contracts, stole the money, and
avoided investigation
-Salary Grab- Congress voted itself a 50% pay raise, and added two years of
“back pay”. Public outcry forced the repeal of this act
Reconstruction 1865-1877
• To many Americans, the most important issue was deciding the fate of the Confederate states
after the Civil War.
• The Constitution provided no guidance on secession or readmission of states.
Legislation
Provisions
Freedman’s Bureau Acts (18651866)
Create a government agency to provide
services to freed slaves and war victims
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Grant citizenship to African Americans and
outlaw the Black Codes
Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
Guarantees citizenship to African Americans
and prohibits states from passing laws to take
away citizens rights
Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
States that no citizen can be denied the right
to vote because of “race, color, or previous
servitude”.
End of Reconstruction 1877
Reconstruction officially ended with the election of 1876. Neither presidential Candidate,
Hayes or Tilden, carried a majority of the electoral votes. As a result a Compromise was
reached: Hayes would become President (Northern Voters), but Reconstruction would end.
When Hayes took office, the military left the South.
Reasons for ending Reconstruction varied from the high expenses to the corruption.
Solid South
One reason for the end of reconstruction was the shift from Republican controlled Southern politics back to
democratic. In 1872 the last of the ex-confederates had been pardoned. They created a new bloc of Southern
Democratic voters called the Solid South.
Effects of Reconstruction
•
•
•
•
•
•
Union is politically restored.
African Americans gain citizenship and voting rights. (14th and 15th Amendments)
South’s economy and infrastructure are improved.
Southern states establish public school system for whites and Blacks
Ku Klux Klan and other groups terrorize African Americans.
Sharecropping system takes hold in the South.
Poll Tax
$1.00
to vote
Grandfather
Clauses
Restrictions on
African Americans
Voting Rights
Violence
Literacy
Tests
Property
Test
Limiting Black Rights
Now that the government troops had left the South, the Southerners took steps to
limit African American rights and liberties. They passed laws such as the Jim Crow
laws, Poll taxes and Literacy tests.
Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow laws became a legal way to separate white and black southerners. Every
aspect of daily life was ruled by Jim Crow Laws. These laws required the separation
of blacks and whites in schools, parks, public buildings, hospitals, and on
transportation systems. The races could not use the same water fountains or
bathrooms. The facilities for blacks were almost always inferior to those for the
whites.
Jim Crow- system of
laws that segregated
public services by race
starting in 1890s
Review:
th
15
Amendment
As African Americans across the south got used to the idea of being freed,
they began demanding the right to vote. The 15th Amendment secured
their suffrage:
No citizen may be denied the right to vote “By the United States on
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
Poll Tax
As a tactic to prevent blacks from voting many southern states began to require
voters to own property and to pay a poll tax, or fee to vote. These requirements
were out of the reach of most Africa Americans.
Literacy Tests
Voters also had to demonstrate minimum standards of knowledge by passing
literacy tests. These tests were specifically designed for Blacks to fail, and African
Americans were often given more difficult tests than Southern Whites.
Grandfather Clauses
To prevent too many whites from voting, some states passed laws saying that any
white who had voted themselves, or had ancestors who had voted, were exempt
from the literacy tests. Since only whites could vote before black suffrage, only
whites could be grandfathered in.
Grandfather clauselegislation that exempts
people from following a law
if they meet certain
conditions prior to passing
the law
KKK
The Ku Klux Klan was a social club that quickly evolved into a terrorist organization
whose goal was to eliminate the republican party in the South through intimidation
and fear. The long term goal was to keep the African Americans as submissive
laborers.
Terror tactics included carrying guns and whips, burning crosses in front yards, and
kidnapping, torture and murder.
End of Reconstruction
The Compromise of 1877 marked the End of Reconstruction. Looking back, the
Reconstruction era had both successes and failures:
Successes
-South was repaired
-economic growth in North and
South
-14th and 15th amendments
-Freedmen’s Bureau
-mandatory education in south
Failures
-black southerners were poor
-withdrawal of federal troops hurt
and limited black rights
-racism remained
-South still lacked industry
Reconstruction Sum up:
1) Lincoln wanted to forgive the South to quickly rebuild the Union
2) Lincoln’s assassination allowed Republican Congress to pass
Radical Reconstruction
3) Radical Reconstruction included military occupation of the South,
Civil Rights legislation and the 14th and 15th Amendments.
4) Southern Blacks were able to vote in democrats to support them,
but still lived in poverty
5) The Freedmen’s Bureau provided food, housing and basic needs
6) Reconstruction and Grant’s presidency were marked by
corruption and stolen funds
7) The Compromise of 1877 meant the end of Reconstruction
8) The Solid South turns the South into a democratic voting region,
with laws and groups to prevents blacks from voting. Soon all the
advancements from reconstruction were gone.
Review
The literacy test and poll taxes used in the
Southern states after 1870 were designed to
a. Ensure that only well-informed people
voted
b. Prevent African Americans from voting
c. Provide an alternative to citizenship tests
d. Promote advances in public education
Review
President Lincoln’s post-Civil War plan for
reconstruction of the South was based on the theory
that the former Confederate states
a. Should be treated as conquered territories
b. Could be readmitted to the Union only by
Congress
c. Had never actually left the Union
d. Must grant full equality to all people
Compare Contrast
Sharecropping
Tenant Farming