Download Athens vs. Sparta

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Athens wikipedia, lookup

Spartan army wikipedia, lookup

Ostracism wikipedia, lookup

Liturgy (ancient Greece) wikipedia, lookup

Brauron wikipedia, lookup

Acropolis of Athens wikipedia, lookup

Corinthian War wikipedia, lookup

Prostitution in ancient Greece wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek warfare wikipedia, lookup

First Persian invasion of Greece wikipedia, lookup

Direct democracy wikipedia, lookup

Epikleros wikipedia, lookup

Tyrant wikipedia, lookup

Athenian democracy wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Communities that survived the Dark
Ages were very small and simple
Ruled by local nobles and wealthier
citizens who owned most of the land:
Virtually impossible to change your status in
life
Commoners were forced to pay tribute to
these rulers
Evolve into city-states
Remember: Greece is not one unified nation,
but rather a collection of federations
The Greeks called their city-state the
polis.
Each polis was an independent governing unit
with varying forms of government.
Aristotle:
Rule by the one
Rule by the few
Rule by the many
“Now it is evident that
the form of government
is best in which every
man, whoever he is, can
act best and live happily.”
• Expands upon Plato’s initial political
philosophies and identifies 6 forms of
government.
– What were Plato’s categories of government?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Aristocracy
Timocracy
Oligarchy
Democracy
Tyranny
• Expands upon Plato’s initial political
philosophies and identifies 6 forms of
government.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Monarchy
Dictatorship
Aristocracy
Oligarchy
Polity
Democracy
Monarchy
Aristocracy
Polity
Government of one for
the common good of the
people; based on
heredity.
Government of the
(few) best according
to virtue alone.
Government of many in the
best interests of the country –
combines aristocracy with
democracy.
The
one
The
few
The
many
Tyranny
(Dictator)
Oligarchy
Democracy
Government of one for
personal advantage.
Government of the
few based on wealthy
and property.
Government where poor
masses have control and
use it to serve themselves.
• Monarchy vs. Tyranny
– A monarchy can be successful if the king is moral, but
can easily degrade into tyranny if he is not.
• Aristocracy vs. Oligarchy
– An aristocracy becomes an oligarchy when it caters only
for the interests of the rich.
• Polity vs. Democracy
– The fairest constitution is a mixed “ polity” of rich and
poor.
– Aristotle’s “fear that the rule of the “Many” would
typically lead to the tyranny of the poor and propertyless majority over the middle classes.
Most notably Athens was a democracy;
however, it was not the only form of
government in the city state…
Monarchy: Rule by king or queen
Aristocracy : Rule by a small group of
land owning elite
Tyranny: Rule by one person, the Tyrant,
who takes power, sometimes by force
Democracy: Rule in which the people
are the source of power
On its way from a Monarchy to Democracy
Athens had several people who made
important reforms to develop their
government:
Early Athens was ruled by a king after it
became a unified polis about 700 B.C.
Later aristocrats took power as they controlled
most of the land
Increased trade led to the development of a
merchant class, these merchants become Tyrants
 First Athenian lawmaker (7th century BC)
 The first to codify & write down laws of
Athens—previously interpreted &
administered arbitrarily by aristocratic
magistrates
 Code famous for its
 Death was the penalty for almost all crimes
 One advance was in the laws of homicide, which
recognized the responsibility of the state, not the
victim's family, in punishing a murderer; thus
blood feuds were to be avoided
 Draconian - unusually severe or cruel
 Laid foundation for democracy in
Athens
 Drew up clear, simple plan that
balanced rights of citizens
 Built-in safeguards to keep one group
from oppressing others
 Passed law that canceled all debt owed
by poor to rich landowners ; forbade
anyone be enslaved for debt
 Wrote code of laws, simpler and less
brutal than existing Draconian laws
 Divided citizens into 4 classes according
to property ownership (each with a
different share in the government)
Draco
needed to
chillax…
Pentacosiomedimnoi - property or estate
could produce 500 bushels of goods per year;
eligible for all top positions of government in
Athens.
Hippeis - second highest; could produce 300
bushels per year; could afford to maintain a
war horse in the service of the state
Zeugitai - whose whose property or estate
could produce 200 bushels per year; men
who could afford armor or a yoke of oxen
Bushel:
8 gallons (wet)
4 pecks (dry)
Thetes - manual workers or sharecroppers,
they served voluntarily as auxiliaries with a
sling or naval row men
Aristocrat who seized
power in 560 B.C. and
becomes a “tyrant”
Took land from the rich
and gave it to the poor
Greek Robin Hood?
Popular with the poor in
Athens
First form of “socialism”?
Came from one of the most
powerful families in Athens
Created a new council of
500 that oversaw foreign
affairs, and made laws that
were voted on by male
citizens
The basis for The Boule
(council of 500); came into
prominence after his rule
helping to shape Athenian
Democracy.
Organized a vote in the
popular assembly that
deprived the Areopagus
(old aristocratic courts
& judges) of its
remaining power
Power to the People!
 Believed to have been
the defining moment of
Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy was a participatory
democracy.
 Government was carried out directly by the
citizens who voted on all major issues
Two Governing Groups:
Ekklesia- general assembly, the main body,
open to all male citizens over the age of 18
Boule - a council of 500 elected officials
• Adult male Athenian
citizens (age 18+) who had
completed their military
training (2 year service)
– About 20% of the
population
• Excluded a majority of the
population:
– slaves, freed slaves, children,
women and metics.
Set the agenda for the ekklesia
Carried out all laws & administered
decisions of ekklesia
Did not receive recompense
Requirements: >30 and an Athenian citizen
Served for one year at a time and could not
serve for more than two years in a lifetime
50 men were elected from each of the 10 tribes
of Athens
Chosen by lot (lottery)
Each section of Attica was equally represented
 A highly unusual system of government
 Primarily an oligarchy, but it included
democratic elements.
 Two kings from two different families ruled
the city-state,
 But a 28-member 'council of elders' limited
their powers.
 Council of Elders (known as the Gerousia)
 male citizens over the age of sixty
 elected and served for life.
 Apella
 all male citizens over the age of thirty
 voted on proposals that originated in the gerousia
 also elected the elders who served on the gerousia.
Seaports
on the
Aegean
Eurotas
River
Pindus
Mountains
• Compare and Contrast Athens &
Sparta
–How would geography impact the
economy and culture of Athens?
–Look at your Venn Diagram…
Similarities? Differences?
–Pros/Cons of Athens? Sparta?
• Located near the coast of
Aegean Sea with good port
• Many rivers nearby
• Acropolis—high hill;
center of religious life
• Agora—center of public
life; public market and
meeting place
• Located in central,
southeastern section of
Peloponnesus
• Eurotas River Valley
• Protected by Mountains
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
Parthenon
Old Temple of Athena
Erechtheum (temple to Poseidon)
Statue of Athena Promachos
Propylaea (entrance way)
Temple of Athena Nike
Eleusinion (sacred storehouse)
Sanctuary of Artemis
Chalkotheke (treasury)
Pandroseion (sanctuary to daughter of
first king of Athens)
Arrephorion (lodging for servants)
Altar of Athena
Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus
Sanctuary of Pandion (king)
Odeon of Herodes Atticus
(ampitheater)
Stoa of Eumenes (walkway)
Sanctuary of Asclepius (god of
medicine)
Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus
Odeon of Pericles (ampitheater)
Temenos of Dionysus Eleuthereus
(sacred land)
Aglaureion (shrine to daughter of King
Actaeus )
• Center of trade and culture
– Wealthy
– Exposure to finest art, literature, & products the
world over
– Developed an appreciation for beauty & skill
• Education exceedingly important
– Why would this be the case in a democracy?
– Education included reading, writing, rhetoric,
philosophy, etc… but also physical training
– Only available for sons’ of citizens
• Greeks ate simple foods
– Meat was reserved for special
occasions even amongst rich
• Limited army but developed a navy of
triremes for sea supremacy
• Men ran public sphere
• Women were restricted to domestic
sphere
– Raised children & kept home running
– Some poor women worked - only in
menial tasks
– Could not vote or take part in politics
– Had to live in a special section of the
house called the gynaeceum
• Military primary focus after 600 BC
• Citizens taught to put needs of the
city above their own, ALWAYS!
• No longer worked to conquer
surrounding areas and instead
focused on protecting city-state
– Landlocked geography kept them
isolated
– Fertile plains allowed their helots to
supply the city’s agricultural needs
– They lived in fear of helot revolt (citizens
were greatly out-numbered by the
helots)
• Slaves that formed the main
population of Sparta
• Ritually mistreated,
humiliated and even
slaughtered
• During the crypteia, in
autumn, any helot could be
killed by a Spartan citizen
without fear of repercussion
or fear of guilt
– Crypteia = the final test of a
Spartan warrior in training
• Children lived with their mothers in the women's
quarter until they were 7 years old
• Training for boys started at 7; went to live in
barracks
• Training continued until 20 and it was harsh:
– Only owned weapons, one cloak, no shoes, thin mat
– Given starvation rations to encourage resourcefulness
– Rigid discipline, painful and demanding training, all to
be borne silently
• Served in army from 20-60 years
• At 30:
– Could marry
– Join Assembly (government)
• Girls also trained and competed in wrestling,
gymnastics, and combat training.
• At 18 the Spartan girl had to pass fitness test
– Pass = allowed to marry
– Fail = lose citizenship (Perioikos)
• Not training as soldier but their health
ensured health of their children—bearing
children was #1 goal
• Men were frequently away, women:
– Could own property
– Run farms, businesses & households
• Women were second-class citizens
Who
wears
short
shorts?
We wear
short
shorts!
• No mingling with other city-states (travel or trade)
• Only interaction through alliances to ensure safety
of city-state
• No interest in trade, wealth, or culture
• Lived such simple lives Spartan has come to mean
simple and harsh
• Community above the individual:
– Children did not belong to parents but to polis
– Sickly or deformed babies were left to the elements or
thrown off a cliff to die or trained to become slaves
– Only soldiers who died in battle and mothers who died
in childbirth were allowed gravestones
Either come
back with your
shield or on it!