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Communities that survived the Dark Ages were very small and simple Ruled by local nobles and wealthier citizens who owned most of the land: Virtually impossible to change your status in life Commoners were forced to pay tribute to these rulers Evolve into city-states Remember: Greece is not one unified nation, but rather a collection of federations The Greeks called their city-state the polis. Each polis was an independent governing unit with varying forms of government. Aristotle: Rule by the one Rule by the few Rule by the many “Now it is evident that the form of government is best in which every man, whoever he is, can act best and live happily.” • Expands upon Plato’s initial political philosophies and identifies 6 forms of government. – What were Plato’s categories of government? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Aristocracy Timocracy Oligarchy Democracy Tyranny • Expands upon Plato’s initial political philosophies and identifies 6 forms of government. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Monarchy Dictatorship Aristocracy Oligarchy Polity Democracy Monarchy Aristocracy Polity Government of one for the common good of the people; based on heredity. Government of the (few) best according to virtue alone. Government of many in the best interests of the country – combines aristocracy with democracy. The one The few The many Tyranny (Dictator) Oligarchy Democracy Government of one for personal advantage. Government of the few based on wealthy and property. Government where poor masses have control and use it to serve themselves. • Monarchy vs. Tyranny – A monarchy can be successful if the king is moral, but can easily degrade into tyranny if he is not. • Aristocracy vs. Oligarchy – An aristocracy becomes an oligarchy when it caters only for the interests of the rich. • Polity vs. Democracy – The fairest constitution is a mixed “ polity” of rich and poor. – Aristotle’s “fear that the rule of the “Many” would typically lead to the tyranny of the poor and propertyless majority over the middle classes. Most notably Athens was a democracy; however, it was not the only form of government in the city state… Monarchy: Rule by king or queen Aristocracy : Rule by a small group of land owning elite Tyranny: Rule by one person, the Tyrant, who takes power, sometimes by force Democracy: Rule in which the people are the source of power On its way from a Monarchy to Democracy Athens had several people who made important reforms to develop their government: Early Athens was ruled by a king after it became a unified polis about 700 B.C. Later aristocrats took power as they controlled most of the land Increased trade led to the development of a merchant class, these merchants become Tyrants First Athenian lawmaker (7th century BC) The first to codify & write down laws of Athens—previously interpreted & administered arbitrarily by aristocratic magistrates Code famous for its Death was the penalty for almost all crimes One advance was in the laws of homicide, which recognized the responsibility of the state, not the victim's family, in punishing a murderer; thus blood feuds were to be avoided Draconian - unusually severe or cruel Laid foundation for democracy in Athens Drew up clear, simple plan that balanced rights of citizens Built-in safeguards to keep one group from oppressing others Passed law that canceled all debt owed by poor to rich landowners ; forbade anyone be enslaved for debt Wrote code of laws, simpler and less brutal than existing Draconian laws Divided citizens into 4 classes according to property ownership (each with a different share in the government) Draco needed to chillax… Pentacosiomedimnoi - property or estate could produce 500 bushels of goods per year; eligible for all top positions of government in Athens. Hippeis - second highest; could produce 300 bushels per year; could afford to maintain a war horse in the service of the state Zeugitai - whose whose property or estate could produce 200 bushels per year; men who could afford armor or a yoke of oxen Bushel: 8 gallons (wet) 4 pecks (dry) Thetes - manual workers or sharecroppers, they served voluntarily as auxiliaries with a sling or naval row men Aristocrat who seized power in 560 B.C. and becomes a “tyrant” Took land from the rich and gave it to the poor Greek Robin Hood? Popular with the poor in Athens First form of “socialism”? Came from one of the most powerful families in Athens Created a new council of 500 that oversaw foreign affairs, and made laws that were voted on by male citizens The basis for The Boule (council of 500); came into prominence after his rule helping to shape Athenian Democracy. Organized a vote in the popular assembly that deprived the Areopagus (old aristocratic courts & judges) of its remaining power Power to the People! Believed to have been the defining moment of Athenian democracy Athenian democracy was a participatory democracy. Government was carried out directly by the citizens who voted on all major issues Two Governing Groups: Ekklesia- general assembly, the main body, open to all male citizens over the age of 18 Boule - a council of 500 elected officials • Adult male Athenian citizens (age 18+) who had completed their military training (2 year service) – About 20% of the population • Excluded a majority of the population: – slaves, freed slaves, children, women and metics. Set the agenda for the ekklesia Carried out all laws & administered decisions of ekklesia Did not receive recompense Requirements: >30 and an Athenian citizen Served for one year at a time and could not serve for more than two years in a lifetime 50 men were elected from each of the 10 tribes of Athens Chosen by lot (lottery) Each section of Attica was equally represented A highly unusual system of government Primarily an oligarchy, but it included democratic elements. Two kings from two different families ruled the city-state, But a 28-member 'council of elders' limited their powers. Council of Elders (known as the Gerousia) male citizens over the age of sixty elected and served for life. Apella all male citizens over the age of thirty voted on proposals that originated in the gerousia also elected the elders who served on the gerousia. Seaports on the Aegean Eurotas River Pindus Mountains • Compare and Contrast Athens & Sparta –How would geography impact the economy and culture of Athens? –Look at your Venn Diagram… Similarities? Differences? –Pros/Cons of Athens? Sparta? • Located near the coast of Aegean Sea with good port • Many rivers nearby • Acropolis—high hill; center of religious life • Agora—center of public life; public market and meeting place • Located in central, southeastern section of Peloponnesus • Eurotas River Valley • Protected by Mountains 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Parthenon Old Temple of Athena Erechtheum (temple to Poseidon) Statue of Athena Promachos Propylaea (entrance way) Temple of Athena Nike Eleusinion (sacred storehouse) Sanctuary of Artemis Chalkotheke (treasury) Pandroseion (sanctuary to daughter of first king of Athens) Arrephorion (lodging for servants) Altar of Athena Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus Sanctuary of Pandion (king) Odeon of Herodes Atticus (ampitheater) Stoa of Eumenes (walkway) Sanctuary of Asclepius (god of medicine) Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus Odeon of Pericles (ampitheater) Temenos of Dionysus Eleuthereus (sacred land) Aglaureion (shrine to daughter of King Actaeus ) • Center of trade and culture – Wealthy – Exposure to finest art, literature, & products the world over – Developed an appreciation for beauty & skill • Education exceedingly important – Why would this be the case in a democracy? – Education included reading, writing, rhetoric, philosophy, etc… but also physical training – Only available for sons’ of citizens • Greeks ate simple foods – Meat was reserved for special occasions even amongst rich • Limited army but developed a navy of triremes for sea supremacy • Men ran public sphere • Women were restricted to domestic sphere – Raised children & kept home running – Some poor women worked - only in menial tasks – Could not vote or take part in politics – Had to live in a special section of the house called the gynaeceum • Military primary focus after 600 BC • Citizens taught to put needs of the city above their own, ALWAYS! • No longer worked to conquer surrounding areas and instead focused on protecting city-state – Landlocked geography kept them isolated – Fertile plains allowed their helots to supply the city’s agricultural needs – They lived in fear of helot revolt (citizens were greatly out-numbered by the helots) • Slaves that formed the main population of Sparta • Ritually mistreated, humiliated and even slaughtered • During the crypteia, in autumn, any helot could be killed by a Spartan citizen without fear of repercussion or fear of guilt – Crypteia = the final test of a Spartan warrior in training • Children lived with their mothers in the women's quarter until they were 7 years old • Training for boys started at 7; went to live in barracks • Training continued until 20 and it was harsh: – Only owned weapons, one cloak, no shoes, thin mat – Given starvation rations to encourage resourcefulness – Rigid discipline, painful and demanding training, all to be borne silently • Served in army from 20-60 years • At 30: – Could marry – Join Assembly (government) • Girls also trained and competed in wrestling, gymnastics, and combat training. • At 18 the Spartan girl had to pass fitness test – Pass = allowed to marry – Fail = lose citizenship (Perioikos) • Not training as soldier but their health ensured health of their children—bearing children was #1 goal • Men were frequently away, women: – Could own property – Run farms, businesses & households • Women were second-class citizens Who wears short shorts? We wear short shorts! • No mingling with other city-states (travel or trade) • Only interaction through alliances to ensure safety of city-state • No interest in trade, wealth, or culture • Lived such simple lives Spartan has come to mean simple and harsh • Community above the individual: – Children did not belong to parents but to polis – Sickly or deformed babies were left to the elements or thrown off a cliff to die or trained to become slaves – Only soldiers who died in battle and mothers who died in childbirth were allowed gravestones Either come back with your shield or on it!