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Chapter 4: Section1
What Are Minerals?
naturally occurring,
inorganic solid that
has a crystal
structure and a
definite chemical
What 5 Characteristics Does
a Mineral Have to Have?
A mineral must be:
 Naturally
 Inorganic
 Solid
 Crystal
 Definite Chemical
What Does It Mean to Be
Naturally Occurring?
A mineral must occur
brick, steel, and
glass all come from
substances found in
Earth’s crust but they
are manufactured by
How Can Something Be Inorganic?
– the mineral
cannot arise from
materials that were once
part of a living thing
Ex. Coal is NOT a mineral
because it is made up the
remains of plants and
What kind of pattern must a
mineral have?
mineral must have a
crystal structure – a
repeating pattern of a
mineral’s particles that
forms a solid.
Faces – a crystal’s flat
side that meets at
sharp edges and corners
What kind of composition must
a mineral have?
A mineral must have
a definite chemical
composition – it
always contains
certain elements in
definite proportions;
most minerals are
Cinnabar –
composed of the
elements Mercury
and Sulfur
What Is the Difference Between an
Element and a Compound?
– a substance composed of
a single kind of atom. Ex.
Two or more
elements combined so that the
elements no longer have distinct
properties Ex. Water H20
How Do You Identify Minerals?
Cleavage and
can vary)
How Do You Determine a
Mineral’s Hardness?
Mohs invented a
test to describe and
compare the hardness of
Mohs Hardness Scale
Ranks ten minerals from
softest to hardest
How Does the Mohs Scale Work?
(2) will
scratch talc (1),
calcite (3) will
scratch gypsum
(2), fluorite (4)
will scratch
calcite (3), etc.
What Is a Streak Test?
streak of a
mineral is the color of
its powder
The streak color and
the mineral color are
often different
To test: rub a mineral
against an unglazed
tile (streak plate)
What is the Luster of a
– used to describe
how a mineral reflects
light from its surface
Minerals containing
metals are often shiny
Earthy, waxy, and pearly
What does Density have to do
with Minerals?
mineral has a characteristic
Density – or mass per unit volume;
Density = mass/volume
Displacement – the volume of the
displaced water equals the volume
of the the sample
What Kind of Shape does a
Mineral have?
have a crystal structure
What is Mineral Cleavage?
mineral’s ability to
split easily along a
flat surface
ability to
break apart
depends on the
arrangement of
the atoms in the
Basal Cleavage
What is Mineral Fracture?
– How a mineral
looks when it breaks apart in
an irregular way
What Special Properties does a
Mineral have?
 Fluorescence
–minerals that glow under
ultraviolet light
 Magnetism
- ex. Loadstone
 Chemical
Reactivity- ex. Calcite gives off
carbon dioxide
 Electrical
Properties – ex. quartz
How are Minerals Formed?
 Two
General Ways:
Crystallization of melted materials
from Magma
of materials dissolved in
Minerals from Hot water
formed by evaporation
What is Crystallization?
the process by which atoms
are arranged to form a
material with a crystal
How do Minerals form from
form as magma
cools inside the crust, or as
lava hardens on the surface
What Effects Crystal Size?
at which magma cools
Slower cooling forms
larger crystals
The amount of gas the
magma contains
The chemical composition of
the magma
How do Minerals Form from Hot
Water Solutions?
Magma beneath Earth’s surface
has heated the water to a high
temperature beneath Earth’s
surface causing minerals to
this solution cools the
elements and compounds leave
the solution and crystallize as
What is a Solution?
– A mixture in
which one substance
dissolves in another
What do Pure Metals often
form from Hot Water
 Veins
– A narrow channel or
slab of a
mineral that is much different from
the surrounding rock
How are Minerals Formed
by Evaporation?
water turns to vapor it
leaves behind the mineral
Example: A salt water
solution leaves behind large
crystals of salt
Where are Minerals Found?
crust is made up of a
variety of minerals however;
rare and less common minerals
are usually located near plate
boundaries because of volcanic
activity and mountain building
Section 3: How are Minerals
Minerals are the source of
Metals ex. Aluminum, Iron
Gemstones ex. Rubies and
Other Useful materials ex. Talc
(talcum powder)
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