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Transcript
Ecology:
an introduction
The study of the
interactions that take place
among organisms and their
environment
Ecosystem
Ecosystem - all the living organisms that
live in an area and the nonliving features
of their environment
Ecosystem
All the organisms living in an area
and the nonliving features of their
environment
–Biotic – living
–Abiotic – nonliving
Biotic
Biotic – living
–Plants
–Animals
–Single celled organisms
–Fungi
Abiotic
Abiotic – nonliving
– Water
– Air
– Soil
– Temperature
– Sunlight
Parts of an Ecosystem
Biosphere
The part of Earth that supports life
–Top portion of Earth's crust
(lithosphere/ asthenosphere)
–All the waters that cover Earth's
surface (hydrosphere)
–Atmosphere (air) that surrounds
Earth
Describe each of the following
terms:
• Biosphere - part of Earth that supports
life, including the top portion of Earth's
crust, the atmosphere, and all the water on
Earth's surface
• Biotic - living
• Abiotic – non-living
Ecosystem
Ecosystem - all the living organisms that
live in an area and the nonliving features
of their environment
• Example: Oceans, Forest, Desert
Community
All the populations in an
ecosystem (biotic)
Community - all the populations of
different species that live in an ecosystem
http://www2.tpwd.state.tx.us/learning/texas_nature_trackers/black_
tailed_prairie_dog/images/lg_black_tailed_prairie_dogs.jpg
Population
All the organisms in an
ecosystem that belong to the
same species (biotic)
Populations
All of the same species in an ecosystem
www.intrasystems.gr
www.nkf-mt.org.uk
Population - all the organisms that belong
to the same species living in a community
Organism (species)
one of any living thing in an ecosystem
Organism (species)
Habitat
The place in which an
organism lives
–provides the kinds of food and
shelter, the temperature, and the
amount of moisture the organism
needs to survive
Habitat - place where an organism lives
and that provides the types of food,
shelter, moisture, and temperature needed
for survival
Niche
• The specific role (job) that an organism
plays in its ecosystem
Niche - in an ecosystem, refers to the
unique ways an organism survives,
obtains food and shelter, and avoids
danger
http://www.thinksimian.com/images/birds_2/nest.JPG
Things that affect an ecosystem
Limiting factors
Carrying capacity
Competition
Limiting Factors
Anything that restricts or controls the
number of individuals in a population
www.bahamascommerce.com
Limiting Factor
Anything that restricts the number
of individuals in a population.
Includes living / biotic and
nonliving / abiotic features of the
ecosystem
Limiting factor - anything that can restrict the
size of a population, including living and nonliving
features of an ecosystem, such as predators or
drought
Carrying Capacity
The largest number of individuals of one
species an ecosystem can support
www.wwt.org.uk
Carrying Capacity
• The maximum number of individuals of
any species that can be supported by a
particular ecosystem on a long-term basis
Carrying capacity - largest number of
individuals of a particular species that an
ecosystem can support over time
http://library.thinkquest.org/J002558F/carrying_capacity.JPG
Competition
All living things compete for
– Food
– Space
Competition limits population growth
www.opim.wharton.upenn.edu
Competition
Competition caused by population
growth affects many organisms,
including humans
Limits population size