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Transcript
LAND
+ RESOURCES
WEALTH &
POWER
The Vikings
1. Came from Scandinavia
2. Skilled sailors
3. Curved ships
4. Raid & trade throughout Europe
1. Settlements around
Atlantic Ocean
2. Iceland
3. Erik the Red— Greenland
The Viking Voyages
Scandinavia
Greenland
Iceland
North
America
Europe
1. Leif Eriksson settled N Amer —Vinland
near present-day Canada
2. Probably abandoned b/c of NA
3. Sagas— stories, usually long, heroic stories that
are part fact & part myth
2.2 “The Search for New Trade Routes”
Wealth of Commercial
Revolution came thru
trade
• Africa– gold, ivory, salt,
slaves
• Asia– silk, spices
• Trade Routes
• most were overland
routes like Silk Road
• Venetian merchants had
•
•
•
•
monopoly —sole
economic control—over
goods that reached Med
Sea
Overland routes like Silk
Road became less
reliable b/c
political changes
bandits
expensive
The Beginning of Portuguese Exploration
Prince Henry
• The “Navigator”
• Dreamed of making
Portugal the leading
sea power…$$$
• Studied navigation –
the science of piloting
ships
• Bartolomeu Dias
• 1487-1488
expedition around
Africa
• Pushed out to sea in
storm—2wks
• Sailed around
southern tip of
Africa –Cape of
Good Hope
- Continued Portuguese
Exploration
-Explore west Africa, est.
ports
• Est. trade w/ local rulers
– For gold, ivory, slaves
broke up families, began
•
slave trade
• Vasco da Gama
• sailed around the Cape of
Good Hope to reach India
in 1498
• Surprised to find people
already knew PORTUGUESE
(people of India had
already been trading w/It.
Merchants)
• would make 2 more trips
• Portugal won race to the
Indies (S.E. Asia)
Pedro Alvars Cabral
• thrown off course in a
storm
• accidentally
discovered Brazil
• claimed for Portugal
Columbus’s Bold Idea
1. Columbus-sailor from Genoa, Italy.
2. Thought he could reach Asia by sailing across the
Atlantic.
3. Went to several European nations, but Spain
eventually agrees to finance his trip in 1492.
4. Columbus gets governorship and profits as reward.
Crossing the Ocean
1.
2.
3.
4.
3 ships-Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.
Sailed to Canary islands, off the west coast of Africa.
After a month, the crew started to doubt the trip.
3 days later they spotted land, voyage took 33 days from
the Canary islands.
Columbus’s First Explorations
1. Landed on island in Bahamas, called it San
Salvador “Holy Savior”.
2. Searched other islands, one called Hispaniola.
3. Met Taino Native Americans, called them Indians.
4. Taino were peaceful farmers, Columbus described
them as well built, with handsome bodies and
faces.
Columbus’s First Explorations
1. After 2 months of searching, Columbus
returns to Spain.
2. Before leaving, Santa Maria crashes on coral
reef.
3. Columbus builds small colony on Hispaniola
called La Navidad “Christmas”.
4. Left 40 men, promised to return, leaves on
Nina.
Europe learns of Columbus’s Voyage
1. Columbus returns to Spain with treasures, and Taino, is
made governor, and admiral as reward.
2. Immediately prepares for second trip.
Pope Alexander VI creates line of Demarcation.
3. Portuguese king John was unhappy with this, so two
countries sign Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494.
Columbus’s Later Voyages
1. Returns to La Navidad in 1493, colony is destroyed, sailors
killed.
2. Enslaves Taino against Queen Isabella’s orders, this leads to
his removal as gov. and admiral.
3. Begs for one last voyage. He gets it, but is shipwrecked on
Jamaica, 1 yr passes b4 he is rescued.
4. Returns to Spain a broken man in 1504, dies 2 yrs later
“unnoticed and unsung”.
Mapping N. Amer
Italian Amerigo Vespucci worked for Spain
1. sailed to So Amer in 1501
2. German mapmaker Martin Waldseemuller
3. labeled the continents across the
Atlantic “America” in honor of Vespucci
BALBOA
1. Explorer
2. Vasco Nunez de Balboa
3. failed as farmer in Caribe
Colony
4. took control of the
settlements in Panama
5. made alliances w/ local
natives thru force and
trade
BALBOA cont.
The South Sea
1. led expedition across Panama
2. 200 men & NA guides
3. reached Pacific in 1513
4. 1st Euro to discover a way
across the Amer
5. tried to build fleet to
explore area
6. charged w/ treason by
enemies & executed in 1519
Sailing Around the Globe
Ferdinand Magellan
1. Portuguese sailor who
went to work for Spain
2. believed in a sea
passage thru So Amer
to Asia
3. Set sail in Sept 1519
4. given 5 ships
1. discovered a strait —narrow, winding sea passage–
at s. tip of So Am.
2. passage called Strait of Magellan
3. came across vast ocean very calm after strait—
renamed Pacific Ocean
4. killed in battle in Philippines
5. Juan Elcano led remaining crew back to Sp 1522
6. 1st to circumnavigate the world