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Food in Your Life
A. Nutrients (letters E through I)
1. Substances in food that your body needs to function properly to grow, to
repair itself, and to supply you with energy.
2. Nutrients in food affect all sides of your health triangle
B. Eating habits stem from both a physical need and psychological sire for food.
C. Your Body’s Physical Need for Food
1. Most basic reason for eating is physical.
2. Hunger
a. Natural drive that protects your from starvation.
D. Your Mind’s Desire for Food
1. Appetite
a. Desire, rather than a need, to eat.
b. Learned
c. Shaped by environment and your emotions
2. Your Environment
a. Culture
b. Family and Friends
c. Advertising
d. Time and Money
3. Your Emotions
a. Nothing else to do
b. Stressed
c. Frustrated
d. Depressed
E. Carbohydrates
1. Made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
2. Body’s source of energy
3. Four calories per gram
4. 55 to 65 percent of your daily calories come from carbs
5. Two classifications
a. Simple (sugars – fruits, vegetables, and milk)
b. Complex (starches – chemically more complex – rice, grains, seeds,
nuts and legumes)
6. Role of Carbohydrates
a. Converts carbs into glucose
b. Glucose not used is turned into glycogen and is stored in adipose tissue
7. Fiber
a. Found in tough, stringy part of vegetables, fruits, and grains
b. Special form of complex carbohydrate
c. Prevents constipation, appendicitis, and other intestinal problems
d. Reduce risk of some cancers and heart disease and helps control
F. Proteins
1. Muscle, bone, connective tissue, teeth, skin, blood, and vital organs all
contain protein.
2. Four calories per gram
3. Excess protein converted to fat for storage
4. Made of chains of building blocks called amino acids
a. 20 total – 9 essential
b. body makes up all but nine, which we get from food
5. Types
a. Complete – contain all the essentials (fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk,
cheese, yogurt, and many soybean products)
b. Incomplete – lack some of the essentials (derived from seeds of plants:
legumes, nuts, whole grains, and the seeds themselves)
6. Role of proteins
a. Build new tissue during important growing parts of life
b. New replace old throughout whole entire life
c. Regulates many body processes
G. Fats
1. Body needs fat
2. Form of energy
3. Type of lipid
4. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
5. Made of fatty acids
6. Types
a. Saturated – fatty acid holds all the hydrogen atoms it can (animal fats
and tropical fats)
b. Unsaturated – missing one or more pairs of hydrogen atoms (olive,
canola, soybean, corn, and cottonseed oils)
7. Role of Fats
a. Nine calories per gram
b. Carry vitamins A, D, E, and K into blood and serve as a source of
linoleic acid
c. Add flavor
d. Satisfy hunger since it takes longer to digest
e. Surrounds and cushions vital organs
8. Cholesterol
a. Instrumental in production of sex hormones, vitamin D, and protective
sheath around nerve fibers.
H. Vitamins
1. Needed in small amounts
2. Do not supply calories
3. Speed up reactions that produce energy in body cells
4. Types
a. Water-Soluble – pass easily into bloodstream in process of digestion
b. Fat –Soluble – absorbed and transported by fat
I. Minerals
1. Each mineral has its own unique function in health
2. Body requires larger amounts of some minerals than others.
a. trace minerals (iron, iodine, copper, and other)
3. Calcium
a. structure to bones
b. develop and maintain bone strength
c. aids in muscle contraction and blood clotting
4. Sodium, chloride, and potassium
a. known as electrolytes
b. maintain and balance of fluid within body cells
5. Water
a. greatest percentage of body
b. regulator and vital to every body function
c. carries nutrients to and transport wastes from cells
d. lubricates joints and mucus membranes
e. helps body cool down
f. body uses 10 cups per day
g. recommended to drink 6 – 8 cups a day
h. fruits, vegetables, and milk products contain about 75% water
Guidelines for a Healthful Eating Style
A. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
1. Eat a Variety of Foods – No single food provides all of the nutrients your
body needs in the right amounts
a. the Food Guide Pyramid
1. categorizes foods into five food groups, indicating a range of
servings for each that a person is advised to eat daily
2. specific nutritional needs vary depending on age, gender, physical
condition, body size, and activity level
b. balance foods you eat with physical activity
1. Balance the amount of energy in food with the amount of energy
your body uses
2. Be aware that controlling body fat is more important to health than
controlling body weight
3. Keep in mind that all calories add up in the same way, no matter
what their source
c. Choose Plenty of Grain Products, Vegetables, and Fruits
1. excellent source of complex carbs and fiber
2. low in fats and calories
3. provide essential vitamins and minerals
4. decrease risk of heart disease, obesity, and some cancers
d. Choose an Eating Style Low in Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol
1. about 34 % of the calories in the average American diet (30%
2. high fat intake linked to obesity, some cancers, increased
cholesterol levels, and risk factor for heart disease
e. Choose an Eating Style Moderate in Sugars
f. Choose an Eating Style Moderate in Salt and Sodium
1. Body’s essential mineral
2. Transport nutrients into cells
3. Moves waste out
4. Maintain normal blood pressure and nerve function
5. Amount advised: 2400 mg
B. Healthful Eating Patterns
1. Breakfast
a. most important meal
b. body needs to be recharged
c. linked with better mental and physical performance in late morning
d. react faster
e. less muscle fatigue
2. Lunch
3. Dinner
Being a Smart Food Consumer
A. Nutrition Labels
1. serving size
2. servings per container
3. calories per serving and calories per serving from fat
4. grams of total fat, saturated fat, total carbohydrate, fiber, sugars, protein,
and milligrams of cholesterol and sodium per serving
5. percentage of Daily Value
B. Ingredients List
1. all must have a list
2. listed by weight in descending order
3. greatest amount is listed first
4. food additives
5. sugars and fat substitutes
C. Food Product Label Claims
1. Healthy
2. Light
3. Less
4. –free
5. Fresh
6. Natural
D. Open Dating
1. expiration date
2. freshness date
3. pack date
4. sell date
E. Shelf Labeling
1. unit pricing