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From cradle to grave -- major issues, methods, prenatal development, theories
Development involves the processes and stages of growth from conception across
the life span. It encompasses changes in physical, cognitive, and social behaviors.
Major issues
Cross-sectional research involves studying a variety of ages at a given point in
Longitudinal research follows the same group of subjects for many years.
In cohort-sequential research, several age groups are studied periodically.
Historical research revolves around the particular historical circumstances of an
Prenatal development
Nature versus nurture-are we more affected by heredity or environment?
Continuity versus discontinuity-is developmental change gradual, or do we
progress through distinct stages?
Physical development
Cephalocaudal (head to tail) development
Proximodistal (from the center outward) development
Genotype refers to the total genetic composition of a person.
Phenotype refers to the observable features of the person.
Teratogens are disease agents, drugs, and other environmental agents that can
cause birth defects during the prenatal period.
Physical development
Growth rate declines throughout infancy but is faster than during
any other postnatal period.
Maturation and learning combine to determine skill development and
replace reflexes.
Social development
1. Harry Harlow's surrogate mother research with monkeys demonstrated the
importance of contact comfort.
2. Attachment style
a. Secure attachment means the infant seeks proximity, contact, and
interaction with the caregiver after separation.
b. Insecure attachment means the infant cannot be calmed or ignores the
caregiver after separation.
c. Stranger anxiety peaks at about 6 months; separation anxiety peaks at
about 18 months.
Cognitive development
Infants show a preference for face-like patterns
Visual cliff experiments suggest that infants perceive depth by the
time they are able to crawl.
Childhood and Adolescence
A. Physical development
1. more extensive neural networks continue to develop in the brain
2. Growth rate continues to decline
B. Social development
1. Interaction with the environment provides a sense of gender identity.
2. A greater sense of independence develops as peer relationships begin to
become more important.
C. Cognitive development continues at a rapid rate. There are advances in the areas
1. Leaming
2. Language
3. Thinking skills
II. Adolescence
Physical/ sexual development-puberty
Social development
Peer groups take on an increasingly important role.
Opposite-sex relationships gradually become less recreational and more
Cognitive development
Capability for logical, hypothetical, and introspective thinking develops
Growing awarenesss of one's own mental processes developsmetacognition
Adolescent development relates to many important societal problems, such as suicide,
teen pregnancy, and eating disorders.
Adult and later years
Physical changes
Abilities peak and begin a gradual (1% a year) decline.
Women undergo menopause, with its hormonal and reproductive
Social changes center around such issues as:
Mate selection
Career selection
Cognitive changes vary significantly with some people showing declines
and others not.
Reaction time appears to decline.
Some adults show a decline in memory.
Later years
A. Physical changes
1. There is a general decline in muscle tone and sensory abilities
2.Senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease are two disorders that may
B. Social issues include:
Social isolation, which may be caused by loss of spouse and others, lack
of mobility and declining health
C. Cognitive declines are likely to continue.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor stage, birth to 18 months
Cognitive structures or schema are the means by which humans
acquire and apply knowledge about their world.
Assimilation is the use of available cognitive structures to gain
new information.
Accommodation is the process of modifying cognitive structures
in the face of newly realized complexities in the environment.
Developmental achievements
Circular reactions are repetitive motions babies engage in as
they gradually learn to explore their environment nonreflexively.
object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to
exist even when --hidden from view.
Preoperational stage, 18 months to 6 years
Egocentrism is a limited ability to comprehend a situation from
a perspective one has not experienced.
Animism is the tendency to attribute life to inanimate things.
Artificialism is the tendency to believe everything is the product
of human action.
Developmental achievements
Symbolic representation and language
Readiness for operational thought
Concrete-operational stage, 6 years to early adolescence
Conservation is the principle that matter does not increase or
decrease because of a change in form.
Reversibility is the understanding that mathematical operations
can be undone.
Class inclusion is the ability to understand the hierarchical
nature of classification groups.
Formal-operations stage, adolescence and adulthood
Use of simple logic
Use of simple mental manipulations
Developmental achievements
Hypothetical and deductive reasoning.
Propositional logic
Developmental achievement indicates a readiness for adult intellectual
Not all adolescents or adults achieve formal operational reasoning
Critique of Piaget
1. Development may be more gradual than Piaget's stages imply.
2. The nature of Piaget's tasks may have underestimated cognitive
skills of children.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Preconventional level
Stage 1: characterized by avoidance of punishment
Stage 2: characterized by a desire to further one's own interests
Conventional level
Stage 3: characterized by living up to the expectations of others
Stage 4: characterized by a sense of conscience and "doing one's duty"
Postconventional level
Stage 5: characterized by an understanding that values and rules are
relative but generally need to be upheld
S Psychology tage 6: characterized by universal ethical principles
Critique of Kohlberg
Development may be more gradual and less sequential than Kohlberg's
stages imply.
Gilligan and others have criticized the theory for undervaluing traditional
female traits, which focus on interpersonal issues.
Erikson's psychosocial theory of development
Erikson was trained in the Freudian tradition, and the first four stages
borrow from Freud's psychosexual stages.
The developmental task of each stage involves resolving the tension
between two opposite outcomes.
The stages
Trust versus mistrust
Autonomy versus shame and doubt
Iniative versus guilt
Industry versus inferiority
Identity versus role confusion
Intimacy versus isolation
Generativity versus stagnation
Ego integrity versus despair
-young children
-older children
-young adults
III. Critique of Erikson
There is no agreed-upon set of measures for the various stages.
The stages imply a rigidity of development that may not exist.
The theory may not reflect differences in personality development
between men and women.
Developmental Psychology- Study of the changes that occur in people from birth
through old age.
Cross sectional study- Method of studying developmental changes by examining groups
of subjects who are of different ages.
Cohort- Group of people born during the same period in historical time
Longitudinal study- Method of studying developmental changes by examining the same
group of subjects two or more times, as they grow older.
Biographical or retrospective study- Method of studying developmental changes by
reconstructing subject’s past through interviews and investigating the effects of events
that occurred in the past on current behaviors.
Prenatal- Development from conception to birth
Embryo-Developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception
Fetus- Developing human between 3 months after conception and birth
Placenta- Organ by which an embryo or fetus is attached to its mother’s uterus and that
nourishes it during prenatal development.
Critical period- Time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect
on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect
Neonate - Newborn baby
Rooting reflex- Reflex that causes a newborn to turn its head toward something touching
its cheek and to grope around with its mouth
Swallowing reflex- Reflex that enables the newborn baby to swallow liquids without
Grasping reflex- Reflex that causes newborn babies to close their fists around anything
that is put in their hands
Stepping reflex- Reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if
they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface
temperament- Term used by psychologists to describe the physical/emotional
characteristics of the newborn child and young infant; also referred to as personality
Maturation- Automatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a
function of the passage of time
Developmental norms-Ages by which an average child achieves various developmental
Sensorimotor stage- In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development between
birth and 2 years of age, in which the individual develops object permanence and
acquires the ability to form mental representations
Object permanence -The concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of
Mental representation- Mental image or symbol used to think about or remember an
object, a person, or an event
Preoperational stage- In Piaget’s theory the stage of cognitive development.between 2
and 7, in which the individual becomes able to use mental representations and language
to describe remember and reason
Egocentric- Unable to see things from another’s point of view
Formal operations- In Piaget’s theory, the state between 11 and 15, in which the
indiv.becomes capable of abstract thought
Holophrase- One-word sentences, commonly used by children under 2
Language acquisition device- An internal mechanism for processing speech that is
‘wired In to’ all humans
Imprinting- Form of primitive bonding seen in some species of animals’ the newborn
animal has a tendency to follow the first moving thing it sees after it is born or hatched
Attachment- Emotional bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human
babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort
Autonomy- Sense of independence; desire not to be controlled by others
Socialization- Process by which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to
their family and their culture
solitary play- A child engaged in some activity alone; the earliest form of play
Parallel play- Two children playing side by side at the same activities, paying little or no
Attention to each other; the earliest kind of social interaction between toddlers
Cooperative play- Two or more children engaged in play that requires interaction
Sex role awareness- A little girl’s knowledge that she is a girl and a little boy’s
knowledge that he is a boy
Gender constancy- The realization by a child that gender cannot be changed
Sex role awareness- Knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender
Sex-typed behavior- Socially prescribed ways of behaving that differ for boys and girls
Puberty- Onset of sexual maturation, with accompanying physical development
Menarche- First menstrual period
Imaginary audience- Elkind’s term for adolescents; delusion that they are constantly
being observed by others
Personal fable- Elkind’s term for adolescents; delusion that they are unique, very
important and invulnerable
Identity formation- Erikson’s term for the development of a stable sense of self
to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself
Identity crisis- Period of intense self-examination and decision making’ part of the
process of identity formation
Peer group- A network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another
emotional and social support
Clique- Group of adolescents with similar interests and strong mutual attachment
Anorexia nervosa- A serious eating disorder that is associated with an intense fear
of weight gain and a distorted body image
Bulimia- An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self induced
midlife crisis- A time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs
or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift in career or lifestyle
Midlife transition- According to Levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and
formulate new goals for the future
Menopause- Time in a woman’s life when menstruation ceases
Alzheimer’s disease- A disorder common in late adulthood that is characterized by
progressive losses in memory and changes in personality. It is believed to be caused by a
deterioration of the brain’s structure and function.
Some researchers consider developmental psychology an applied research topic
A. it is more easily applied to people’s lives than research such as behaviorism.
B. Researchers apply findings and theories from other areas of psychology to the
specific topic of human development
C. It is more commonly studied by a graduate student rather than an undergraduate
because of the applications for other research.
D. Doing original research in this area is difficult, so most of the research is about
E. Pure research is difficult to gain support for, especially when a researcher needs to
recruit children as participants.
2. You read in your philosophy class textbook that humans are born “Tabula Rasa” or
“blank slates.” As a student of psychology, which of the following responses would
you have?
A. The statement is incorrect. Humans may be bon without reflexes and instincts,
but we are born with the ability to learn them.
B. The statement is correct. Humans are born without instincts or other mechanisms
in place to help us survive.
C. The statement is correct. Humans are born with a certain number of neurons, but
most develop later as we learn.
D. The statement is incorrect. Humans are born with a set of reflexes that help us
E. The statement is impossible to prove since we cannot infer what babies know or
do not know due to their lack of language.
3. Which of the following statements is most true about how a newborn’s senses
A. A newborn’s senses function the same as an adult’s since the sensory apparatus
develops in the womb.
B. All of our senses function normally when we are newborns except taste due to
lack of stimulation in the womb.
C. All of our senses function normally when we are newborns except touch due to
lack of stimulation in the womb.
D. A newborn’s senses function at a very low level but develop very quickly with
E. Most senses function normally, but sight develops slowly with experience.
4. Most prenatal influences on humans are genetic or hormonal in origin except for
Stress on the mother.
Parents’ level of education about fetal development.
Family history of mental illness.
Operant conditioning occurring before birth.
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development
Erikson was one of the first psychologists to insist that development was a life-long
process rather than coming to completion at puberty or adolescence. He conceptualized
eight stages spanning from birth to old age. Erikson defined these stages with a focus on
tasks that each individual must master. Unsuccessful resolution of these tasks would
leave a "psychological scar." Erikson's stages were developed in response to Freud's
psychosexual stage theory. Whereas Freud thought that each stage was represented by a
sexual crisis. Erikson thought that each stage was distinguished by a psychosocial crisis.
Erikson took into account the impact of the larger society on development.
Erikson's Stages:
Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1-year): Feeling that people will take care of you vs.
viewing the world as a cold, fearsome place.
The basic crisis at this stage is the infant's hope and faith that someone cares about and
will take care of him or her versus a dread or fear of being abandoned. If parents
consistently and successfully meet the infant's needs, the infant learns to trust his or her
environment. According to Erikson, the infant's first social achievement is the willingness
to let the mother out of sight without anxiety or rage because he or she is certain the
mother will return. If parents do NOT successfully meet the infant's needs, the infant
develops a mistrust and fear of people and objects in the environment. Failure to develop
this trust also results in adults who display psychopathology of withdrawal and
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 3-years): Independence through exploring and
others vs. doubt that you can succeed.
The basic crisis at this stage is the toddler's assertion of independence through exploring
and testing limits versus the toddler being made to feel ashamed for maintaining
independence. "Potty training" is an important issue. Successful resolution of the crisis
occurs when parents allow toddlers some autonomy (say be giving them choices) but at
the same time impose some limits. This results in the development of willpower on the
part of the toddler.
Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 5 years): Ability to take initiative and follow through vs. guilt
when others discourage this behavior.
The basis crisis is the development of the child's ability to initiate activity and see those
activities through. Guilt arises from parental discouragement of a child's initiative,
although Erikson argues that the parent must forbid some inappropriate behaviors, but in
a manner that does not make the child feel guilty for initiating the activity. Successful
resolution leaves the child with a sense of purpose and direction and confidence in
planning. Unsuccessful resolution leaves the child with a feeling of unworthiness and a
fear that almost everything self-initiated will go wrong.
Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 11 years): Learning culture's skills and deriving
feelings of competence from peers vs. feeling inferior relative to peers.
The basic crisis if the for the child to learn the skills of the culture, usually in a school
setting. For Erikson, school marked the child's entrance into real life. The child's constant
testing of self in school and against peers is the basis for feelings of competency
(industry) or lack of it (inferiority). At this stage, children are eager to be productive and
learn the fundamentals of technology. If encouraged, a child will enjoy solving problems
and completing tasks, and will seek intellectual stimulation. If not, a sense of inferiority
will arise. However, Erikson cautions that, "If he accepts work as his only obligation,
and 'what works' as his only criterion of worthwhileness, he may become the conformist
and thoughtless slave of his technology and those who are in a position to exploit it."
Identify vs. Role Confusion (12 to 20 years): Asking the question "Who am I?" by
trying on roles within a secure environment vs. lack of exploration and delayed sense of
Successful resolution of this crisis involves the development of a sense of identity, of
reconciling various roles in life into a single identity. Ego identity also involves a
confidence that one has a sense of sameness and continuity that is apparent to others.
Unsuccessful resolution involves confusion and uncertainty over self-identity.
Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adults): Committing to a close, sharing relationship,
some independence vs. keep total independence and isolation.
Successful resolution involves giving up some isolation and developing health} bonds
love with another. Unsuccessful resolution involves loneliness and may possibly lead to
promiscuity (Meredith Gray?). Those choosing isolation are ready, if necessary, to destroy
those people who seem dangerous to them, thus the development of prejudice.
Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adults): Developing a concern for establishing and
guiding the next generation (expanding one's concerns beyond one's immediate group to
that of society and future generations) vs. feeling unfulfilled and becoming self-centered.
Successful resolution of this conflict may involve having and nurturing children, teaching,
taking on younger proteges, or by productive and creative work that will live on.
Unsuccessful resolution involves stagnation and selfishness.
Integrity vs. Despair (65 years on): Accepting the life one has lived without major
regrets vs. despair that time has run out.
Ego integrity is the culmination of the successful resolution of the seven previous crises
in development. It is an acceptance of the life one has lived without major regrets for what
could or should have been done differently. The person who cannot accept the basic way
his life has been lived may despair that time has run out. Many of those experiencing
despair are very afraid of death. Successful resolution involves wisdom and acceptance
of being in the final stages of life.
Developmental Psychology
Nature vs. Nurture
Continuity vs. Stage
Stability vs. Change
Prenatal development
o Conception
o Zygote
o Embryo
o Fetus
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
o Rooting reflex
o Moro reflex
o Babinski reflex
o Grasping reflex
o Sucking reflex
Infancy & Childhood
Physical Development
 Brain development
 Motor development
Infant memory
Cognitive development
Jean Piaget
 Schemas
 Assimilation
 Accommodation
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
 Sensorimotor
o Object permanence
o Stanger anxiety
 Preoperational
o Egocentric
o Pretend play
o Theory of mind
o Language development
 Concrete operational
o Conservation
o Mathematical transformations
 Formal operational
o Abstract logic
o Moral reasoning
Reflections on Piaget’s theory
Social Development
Stranger anxiety
Harry Harlow’s monkeys
Critical period
Konrad Lorenz
o Imprinting
Mary Ainsworth
o Attachment differences
o Secure attachment
o Insecure attachment
Deprivation of attachment
Disruption of attachment
Day care and attachment
Child-rearing practices
o Authoritarian parents
o Authoritative parents
o Permissive parents
Physical development
o Primary sex characteristics
o Secondary sex characteristics
o Menarche
o Spermarche
Cognitive development
Reasoning power
Developing morality
Lawrence Kohlberg
o Preconventional morality
o Conventional morality
o Postconventional morality
Criticisms of Kohlberg
Social Development
Erik Erikson
Psychosocial stages of development
o Trust vs. mistrust
o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
o Initiative vs. guilt
o Competence vs. inferiority
o Identity vs. role confusion
o Intimacy vs. isolation
o Generativity vs. stagnation
o Integrity vs. despair
Parent and Peer influence
Physical development
o Changes during middle adulthood
o Menopause
o Changes during late adulthood
o Life expectancy
o Sensory abilities
o Dementia
o Alzheimer’s disease
Cognitive development
o Aging and memory
o Prospective memory
o Aging and Intelligence
o Cross-sectional studies
o Longitudinal studies
o Crystallized intelligence
o Fluid intelligence
o Social Development
Adulthood ages and stages
o Social clock
 Life events
 Commitments
 Love
o Work
o Death & Dying
o Kübler-Ross model
 Denial
 Anger
 Bargaining
 Depression
 Acceptance
Developmental Psychology
Developmental psychology
Stages of development: germinal, embryonic, fetal
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Rooting reflex
10. Habituation
11. Maturation
12. Schemas
13. Assimilation
14. Accommodation
15. Piaget's stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
16. operational, formal operational
17. Object permanence
18. Conservation
19. Reversibility
20. Egocentrism
21. Theory of mind
22. Attachment
23. Imprinting
24. Self-concept
25. Kohlberg's stages of moral development: preconventional, conventional,
26. Stranger anxiety
27. Basic trust
28. Identity
29. Intimacy
30. Menopause
31. Social clock
32. Puberty
33. Primary/secondary sex characteristics
34. Menarche
35. Erickson's stages of psychosocial development: (know all 8. approximate age, and
36. associate with each)
37. Stranger anxiety
38. Jerome Kagan's research on infant temperament
39. Harry Harlow's monkey studies
40. Parenting styles: authoritarian, permissive, authoritative
41. Alzheimer's disease
42. Crystallized intelligence vs. fluid intelligence
43. Generativity
44. Elizabeth Kuber-Ross' five stages of dying: denial, anger and resentment,
bargaining, depression, acceptance
Infant and Toddler Development
Development — the changes we
go through during our
lifetime Physical, social,
cognitive, moral
Major questions:
1) Nature v. Nurture - How much do genes and experience influence our
2) Continuity v. Discontinuity - Is development a gradual continuous
process, or does it proceed through
separate stages
3) Stability v. Change — Do personality traits stay the same throughout life
or do they change?
From reading:
Zygote - fertilized egg
Embryo - developing human up to 8 weeks after conception
Fetus - developing human from 8 weeks to birth
Rooting reflex - innate tendency for infants to search for a nipple when cheek is stroked.
Other reflexes:
Moro reflex - when startled, baby will throw arms and legs out and head back and then pull
them into body
Toe curling reflex - stroke outer sole and baby spreads toes, stroke inner sole and baby curls
Sucking reflex - touch roof of baby's mouth and she will suck
Grasping reflex - put finger in baby's palm and baby will grab
Tonic Neck Reflex - if baby's head is turned to side, baby makes "on guard" move with arms
Maturation — development that reflects the gradual
unfolding of one's genetic blueprint Trends in
physical development
O developmental norms (there is variation
in the times, but not the sequence) o
proximodistal trend, cephalocaudal trend
Myth #1: A.II social behavior
in humans is learned. Truth:
^\ewborn's senses facilitate social
- See best 8-12" away
- Turn toward human voice
- Gaze longer at facelike objects
- Identify mother's smell
Myth #2: Children who are exposed to man] adults are less distressed leaving their parents
Truth: Separation anxiety begins around age 8 months and peaks at 13 months worldwide regardless of day care
Myth #3: Rabies become attached to their mothers because the] .issochit? them with food. Truth: Soft, warm contact is more important
that food in the tontiatioii of parent-child attachment. Harlow's
monkey's (p. 134-135)
monkeys raised with cloth and wire "mother" preferred cloth mother,
even if wire mother has food.
Harlow tried different variables: cold vs. warm mother, mothers that
rocked vs. still mothers
Myth #4: Children need parents to keep them safe and meet their physical needs. Love and affection is not
necessary for healthy physical and
emotional development.
Truth: Meeting physical needs of a child is not sufficient for healthy development.
monkeys raised in isolation became withdrawn, fearful, despairing,
strongly attached to blanket
- children who are severely neglected tend to have lower serotonin levels
and display inreased aggression
Children in overcrowded Romanian orphanages (where physical needs
were met but nurses had no time for affection) were both physically
and cognitively delayed.
Myth #5: Infants have a critical period for attaching to their caregivers (like the geese in Conrad's imprinting
studies). It is very important that mothers bond with their children in the first few hours of life.
Truth: Although this is true with some bird species, it is NOT true in humans. Evidence shows that human
children can form several attachments during their lives. Children who are separated from their parents initially
exhibit symptoms of distress but recover if placed in a stable environment.
Myth #6: Parents who respond every time their child cries reinforce crying behavior. It spoils them and
makes the clingy mama's boys. (Watson on parenting)
Truth: Children of responsive mothers are more self-assured and less clingy that children
of unresponsive mothers. Ainsworth study, p. 136 ("strange situations")
observed mother-infant pairs at home- categorized parenting as sensitive or
insensitive Later observed
children in unfamiliar situation.
1. sensitive mothers had securely attached children (mom is safe base from which
to explore, distress when
mom leaves and seeks her contact when she returns)
2. insensitive mothers had insecurely attached children (cling to mom, distressed
when mom leaves, and
hard to console when she returns, some refuse mom's comfort)
According to Erik Erikson. this is because responsive mothers teach their child that they
can trust them and the world around them. Thus, they feel confident and in control of
their worlds. (Dr. Spock on parenting and the crazy sixties)
Myth #7: Children do not bond with
abusive or neglectful parents. Truth:
Children even seem to attach to abusive
Harlow made "mothers" that hit the babies when the approached them. If the hitting
mechanism was disrupted.
the babies still preferred the familiar, formerly abusive mother to an unfamiliar mother.
Myth #8 — Neifborns are passive observers of their surroundings. They don't understand concepts such as
addition and subtraction, Truth: Infants as young as 5 months have demonstrated an understanding a simple
subtraction (2-1 = 1) in habituation studies (p. 130, \Figure 4.9)
Question #1: Is it OK to put my child in day
care and go back to work? Answer: We
don't know.
1. Infants in daycare are more likely to be insecurely attached at 1 year old, and
disobedient and aggressive at
older ages.
2. In children 2 and over, daycare provides enhanced opportunities for intellectual and
social growth.
3. Infants in quality daycare before 6 months were more outgoing, popular, and
academically successful than
those without such daycare.
4. Time spent in daycare between 1 month and 6 years correlates positively with mental
development (at age
three) and negatively with engaged mother-child interactions.
Question #2: When does a baby figure out that he is
the person in the mirror? Answer: About 18 months.
Self-concept test (lipstick on the nose, see if she touches mirror or nose)
Question #3: Is it better to be a
strict or permissive parent?
Answer: // is better to be
somewhere in between. Three
parenting styles:
1. Authoratarian — imposes rules, expects obedience
2. Permissive - few demands, little punishment, child gets his/her way a lot
3. Authoratative - demanding and responsive (establishes and enforces rules, but
explains reason and allows for
discussion when older)
Children of authoritative parents have highest self-esteen, self-reliance, and social
competence (true across cultures). Correlation does not mean causation, but thought
that authoritative parents make children feel in control of their lives.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Instructions: The main character in each of the scenarios following is displaying
cognition at one of Piaget's developmental stages (sensorimotor, preoperational,
concrete operational, or formal operational). Identify the stage of thinking being
illustrated by each of these main characters.
1. Sheila complains because her brother has taken two big cookies and has only given
her one. Her brother takes her big cookie, breaks it in half, and says, "Now we both
have two." Sheila yells, "Not fair, all you did was break mine into two pieces!"
2. Rory's mom has given him five empty cardboard boxes. He lines them up in a row,
puts his toys in them, and then says, "Choo, choo, here comes the train!"
3. Jenny's ball rolls out of sight under the sofa. She stares at the sofa for a few seconds,
and then turns her attention to her doll.
4. Clara enjoys spending free time imagining what kind of society could be created if
group of human beings from all over the world moved to a newly discovered,
5. Sergio wants to pull his toy shovel into his playpen, but instead of grasping it by
end or the other and pulling it lengthwise through the slats, he grabs it in the middle
and keeps pulling it against the slats.
6. Shula becomes upset because her sister's scoop of ice cream looks taller than her
own. Her mother squashes down the sister's scoop, and Shula is happy now that it
looks like they have the same amount.
7. Boris just loves his calculus and physics classes, where he consistently receives
high grades.
8. Pepe wants to make sure he distributes the jelly beans fairly, so he lines them up in
one-to-one correspondence before giving some to his friend.