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Transcript
Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________
ANIMAL PHYLA
Part A: Identify the Animal Phyla described:
 ANNELIDA
 CNIDARIA
 ARTHROPODA
 ECHINODERMATA
 CHORDATA
 MOLLUSCA
 NEMATODA
 PLATYHELMINTHES
 PORIFERA
 ROTIFERA
1.
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Commonly referred to as sponges
No mouth; have tiny pores through which water is filtered
Contain specialized cells, but no tissues
Asexual and sexual reproduction
Live in aquatic environments
Digestion occurs in individual cells
2.
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Commonly known as jellyfish, corals, and other stingers
All have stinging cells called nematocysts
Aquatic Body and tentacles have two cell layers
Carnivorous
Asexual and sexual reproduction
Single opening and body cavity that are used for digestion and
respiration
3.
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Simple animals that are un-segmented, bilaterally symmetrical, and
have three cell layers
Commonly known as flatworms
One body cavity: the gut
Some are parasitic
No respiratory or circulatory system
Most can reproduce sexually or asexually
Oxygen and nutrients pass into body through diffusion
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4.
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Commonly known as roundworms
Epidermis secretes hard and flexible cuticle
Head has a few very tiny sense organs and mouth
No respiratory or circulatory system
Live in a wide variety of habitats
Bilaterally symmetrical worm-like organisms
Reproduce sexually
Most are dioecious (organisms have either male or female parts)
Includes organisms commonly known as snails, squid, clams,
octopuses, and scallops
Soft bodies usually have a “head” and “foot” area
Often have a hard exoskeleton
Usually have open circulatory systems
Have sensors to detect chemicals, vibrations, and touch
Use the same organ for many functions (For example, the heart
and kidneys are important parts of the reproductive, circulatory,
and excretory systems.)
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10.
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Segmented worms
Includes organisms commonly known as earthworms and leeches
Body usually has bristles
Live in a variety of aquatic and land habitats
Locomotory, respiratory, and excretory organs are repeated in
segments through the body
Share a common nervous system, circulatory system, and gut
Usually reproduce sexually, but some have the ability to reproduce
asexually
Includes organisms commonly known as spiders, insects, scorpions,
and crawfish
Exoskeleton made of chitin
Segmented body
Segments are sometimes fused into three parts: head, thorax, and
abdomen area
Jointed appendages
Bilaterally symmetrical
Most have a pair of compound eyes
Have an open circulatory system
Most lay eggs
Includes organisms commonly known as sea cucumbers, sea
urchins, and starfish
Many have five-fold symmetry
Have a system of internal, water-filled canals
Live in marine habitats
Have separate females and males
Decentralized nervous system
Skeleton composed of calcium
Have a simple but complete digestive gut
Simple radial nervous system
Includes humans and other vertebrates
Some features are only present in the embryonic stage
Have pharyngeal slits (series of openings connecting the inside of
the throat to the outside of the “neck”)
Have a dorsal nerve cord (bundle of nerve fibers that runs down
the “back”)
Have a notochord (cartilaginous rod running underneath and
supporting the nerve cord)
Post-anal tail (an extension of the body past the anal opening)
Microscopic aquatic animals
Bodies are mostly soft
Have specialized organ systems and a complete digestive tract
including a mouth and anus Eat plants or animals through filter
feeding
Unusual reproduction and can reproduce sexually or asexually
Bilaterally symmetrical
Have a small brain and nervous system
Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________
ANIMAL EVOLUTIONARY MILESTONES
PHYLA:
 Echinodermata
 Mollusca
 Nematoda
Phylum
1.
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Porifera
Cnidaria
Platyhelminthes
Examples
Sponges
Annelida
Arthropoda
Chordata
Evolutionary Milestone
Multicellularity
2.
Jellyfish, coral
Tissues
3.
Flatworms
Bilateral symmetry
4.
Roundworms
Pseudocoelom (An internal body
cavity of some primitive
invertebrates, similar to a coelom
but lacking a mesodermal lining.)
5.
Clams, squid, snails
Coelom (the body cavity in animals,
located between the intestinal canal
and body wall)
6.
Earthworms, leeches
Segmentation
7.
Insects, spiders,
crustaceans
Jointed appendages
8.
Starfish, sea urchins
Deuterostomes (animals in which
the first opening in the embryo
becomes the anus during embryonic
development)
9.
Vertebrates
Notochord
Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________
ANIMAL CLASSES
CLASS:
 Amphibians
 Fish
 Birds
 Mammals
 Reptiles
Class
1.
Examples
Frog, salamander
Characteristics
 Ectotherms (controls body temperature through
external means)
2.
Alligator, lizard,
crocodile, snake,
turtle
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Lay eggs in water
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Adult breathes air
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Must maintain most skin
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Ectotherms (controls body temperature through
external means)
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Four appendages (or have ancestors with four
appendages)
3.
4.
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Lay eggs on land (except some snakes)
Perch, catfish,
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Aquatic ectotherms
trout, salmon
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Bodies covered with scales
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Breathe with gills
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Have fins
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Lay eggs in water
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Endotherms (warm blooded-controls body
Blue jay, robin,
cardinal, eagle,
hawk
5.
Cat, dog, human,
bat, mouse, rat,
zebra
temperature through internal means)
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Body covered with feathers Wings
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Lay eggs
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Endotherms
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Body covered with hair
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Mammary (milk) glands
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Breathe air
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Have three middle-ear bones
Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________
PLANT TISSUES
Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma
Cell/Tissue Type
Dermal Tissues
Vascular Tissues
Ground Tissues
Meristematic Tissues
Characteristics/Structure
Most abundant, found
throughout the cell, spherical,
thin & flexible cell wall, large
central vacuole (may contain
sap), edible parts of many
fruits and veggies are mostly
parenchyma cells
Function(s)
Storage and food production
Long cells, unevenly
thickened cell walls, cell wall
can stretch as cells grow,
cells arranged in tube-like
strands or cylinders, celery
strands are collenchyma cells
Provide strength and support
for surrounding tissues
Cell walls are very thick &
rigid, these cells often die at
maturity
Strong cell wall remains after
cell death and provides
support
2 types: fibers and sclerids
“Epidermis”-covers all parts
of the plant (much like our
skin), cells are tightly packed
and fit together like a jigsaw
puzzle, produce waxy cuticle
Stomata—
openings in leaf tissue
that controls gas exchanges
(found on green stems and
surfaces of leaves, fewer on
top to conserve water)
Guard cells—control opening
and closing of stomata
Protects body of plant, waxy
cuticle helps prevent water
loss
Stomata regulates flow of
water vapor from leaves
Root hairs (some have)—help
absorb water and dissolved
minerals
Trichomes—hairlike
projections on some plants
help reduce water
evaporation and sometimes
secrete toxic substances to
help protect plant from
predators
Xylem—4 cell types:
tracheids, vessel elements,
fibers and parenchyma, these
cells die
Phloem—cells are sieve tube
members, companion cells
and fibers for support, cells
are alive
Mostly parenchyma cells but
may have collenchyma and
sclerenchyma cells
Phloem transports food
(sugar and
other organic molecules
Xylem transports dissolved
minerals and water
Function in photosynthesis,
storage and support
Found throughout the cell
and often associated with
other tissues
Cells in leaves and some
stems contain chloroplasts
Some cells in stems and roots
have large vacuole for storing
starch and water
Regions of actively dividing
cells
Cells are differently shaped
parenchyma cells with large
nuclei
Apical: found at or near tips
of roots and stems
Provide for cell growth
Apical: allow increase in
length of stems and roots
Vascular cambien: makes
new xylem and phloem cells
Cork cambium: produces
cells with tough cell walls
Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________
ROOTS, STEMS, AND LEAVES
In the blank, R= roots, S= stems, L= leaves
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Absorb water and minerals
Anchor plant
Bundled or circular arrangement of vascular tissue surrounds mass of
parenchyma tissue
Contain vascular tissues for transport to and from stem
Contain vascular tissues that transport water, dissolved minerals and
sugars to and from roots and leaves
Different patterns of veins
Gases move in and out through stomata
May have hairs to aid absorption
Most are beneath soil
Most have relatively large surface area that receives sunlight
Often function as water or food storage sites (ensures long-term survival
when water is scarce)
Primary function is photosynthesis
Short or long ;Thick and massive or thin and thread-like
Size, shape and types vary greatly
Some are adapted to store food
Some are modified to release irritants when broken or crushed
Some are woody (hard and rigid)
Some carry out photosynthesis
Support leaves and flowers
Thin or massive
Two types: tap and fibrous
Usually above ground, occasionally below ground
Water vapor is lost through transpiration, encourages water pulled up
through roots
Xylem and Phloem tissues are at the center
USE THE INFORMATION ABOVE TO CREATE A CHART IN YOUR NOTEBOOK
ROOTS
STEMS
LEAVES
Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________
FLOWERING PLANTS REPRODUCTIVE PARTS
A. carpel (pistil)
B. stigma
C. style
D. ovule
E. ovary
F. stamen
G. anther
H. filament
I. petals
J. sepals
_____1.
The female reproductive organ of the plant (includes stigma, style, and
ovary)
_____2. Receives pollen during pollination
_____3. Slender stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary
_____4. Part of the ovary that usually has one egg; it becomes the seed after
fertilization
_____5. Hollow base of the carpel; contains one or more ovules
_____6. Male reproductive organ of a flower (contains anther and filament)
_____7. Tip of the stamen-produces pollen that eventually becomes sperm
_____8. Thin stalk with anther at top
_____9. Colorful structures at the top of the stem
_____10. Leaf-like structures that encircle the peduncle below the petals
Label each of the following and provide their functions: peduncle, sepal, petal, stigma,
style, ovary, anther, filament
Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________
PLANT RESPONSES
Much like hormones help to regulate your body, plants have hormones that help them
regulate their functions. Match the hormone to its function.
a) auxins
_____1.
_____2.
_____3.
_____4.
b) cytokinins
c) ethylene
d) gibberellins
Promote cell elongation
Cause plants to grow taller; stimulate cell elongation
Stimulate mitosis and cell division
Speeds ripening of fruits and promotes breakdown of complex
carbohydrates to simple sugars
Plants also have the ability to respond to external stimuli. This is called tropism. Match
the plant response term to its definition.
a)
b)
c)
d)
gravitropism
nastic movement
phototropism
thigmotropism
_____1.
_____2.
_____3.
_____4.
The growth of a plant towards light
Plant growth in response to gravity (stems grow upward and roots grow
downward)
The growth of a plant in response to touch
A responsive movement of a plant that is not dependent on the
direction of the stimulus. These movements can be reversible if they do
not involve growth.
Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________
ECOLOGY BASICS
Is It True? Ecosystems and Energy Flow
Instructions: Read each statement below and decide if it is true or false based on
your own background knowledge. In the blank mark “T” for True and “F” for False.
Use the resources provided by your instructor to determine if you were right or
wrong after you have marked all the statements as true or false. For any false
statement, rewrite it to make it a true statement.
1. _____In ecosystems, producers are organisms that are autotrophic and generate
their own energy. Consumers are organisms that obtain energy from feeding on
other organisms or organic matter.
2. _____An herbivore is a consumer that eats only meat.
3. _____A carnivore is a consumer that eats both plants and meat.
4. _____A detritivore is a consumer that feeds on dead organic material.
5. _____An omnivore is a consumer that eats only plants.
6. _____A decomposer is an organism that breaks down organic material. Examples
include fungi and bacteria.
7. _____A food chain represents many different feeding relationships within an
ecosystem.
8. _____Each organism in a food web or food pyramid is said to be at a specific
trophic level with other organisms that have the same feeding habits.
9. _____The graphic below is called an ecological pyramid. It is a graphical
representation that shows the feeding relationship of a group of organisms and the
flow of energy or biomass through different trophic levels in a given ecosystem.
10. _____When energy is transferred from one organism to the next in a food
chain, food web or food pyramid, 10% of the energy is lost and 90% of the energy
is transferred. Therefore, an organism at the top of the food pyramid has almost all
of the energy from all the organisms below it.
11. _____An organism at the top of a food pyramid is a predator to all of the
organisms beneath it.
12. _____As a result of biological magnification, predators at the top of a food web
or food pyramid may have very low levels of dangerous chemicals such as
pesticides and mercury.
Rewrite False statements to make them true here.