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Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________ ANIMAL PHYLA Part A: Identify the Animal Phyla described: ANNELIDA CNIDARIA ARTHROPODA ECHINODERMATA CHORDATA MOLLUSCA NEMATODA PLATYHELMINTHES PORIFERA ROTIFERA 1. Commonly referred to as sponges No mouth; have tiny pores through which water is filtered Contain specialized cells, but no tissues Asexual and sexual reproduction Live in aquatic environments Digestion occurs in individual cells 2. Commonly known as jellyfish, corals, and other stingers All have stinging cells called nematocysts Aquatic Body and tentacles have two cell layers Carnivorous Asexual and sexual reproduction Single opening and body cavity that are used for digestion and respiration 3. Simple animals that are un-segmented, bilaterally symmetrical, and have three cell layers Commonly known as flatworms One body cavity: the gut Some are parasitic No respiratory or circulatory system Most can reproduce sexually or asexually Oxygen and nutrients pass into body through diffusion 4. 5. Commonly known as roundworms Epidermis secretes hard and flexible cuticle Head has a few very tiny sense organs and mouth No respiratory or circulatory system Live in a wide variety of habitats Bilaterally symmetrical worm-like organisms Reproduce sexually Most are dioecious (organisms have either male or female parts) Includes organisms commonly known as snails, squid, clams, octopuses, and scallops Soft bodies usually have a “head” and “foot” area Often have a hard exoskeleton Usually have open circulatory systems Have sensors to detect chemicals, vibrations, and touch Use the same organ for many functions (For example, the heart and kidneys are important parts of the reproductive, circulatory, and excretory systems.) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Segmented worms Includes organisms commonly known as earthworms and leeches Body usually has bristles Live in a variety of aquatic and land habitats Locomotory, respiratory, and excretory organs are repeated in segments through the body Share a common nervous system, circulatory system, and gut Usually reproduce sexually, but some have the ability to reproduce asexually Includes organisms commonly known as spiders, insects, scorpions, and crawfish Exoskeleton made of chitin Segmented body Segments are sometimes fused into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen area Jointed appendages Bilaterally symmetrical Most have a pair of compound eyes Have an open circulatory system Most lay eggs Includes organisms commonly known as sea cucumbers, sea urchins, and starfish Many have five-fold symmetry Have a system of internal, water-filled canals Live in marine habitats Have separate females and males Decentralized nervous system Skeleton composed of calcium Have a simple but complete digestive gut Simple radial nervous system Includes humans and other vertebrates Some features are only present in the embryonic stage Have pharyngeal slits (series of openings connecting the inside of the throat to the outside of the “neck”) Have a dorsal nerve cord (bundle of nerve fibers that runs down the “back”) Have a notochord (cartilaginous rod running underneath and supporting the nerve cord) Post-anal tail (an extension of the body past the anal opening) Microscopic aquatic animals Bodies are mostly soft Have specialized organ systems and a complete digestive tract including a mouth and anus Eat plants or animals through filter feeding Unusual reproduction and can reproduce sexually or asexually Bilaterally symmetrical Have a small brain and nervous system Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________ ANIMAL EVOLUTIONARY MILESTONES PHYLA: Echinodermata Mollusca Nematoda Phylum 1. Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Examples Sponges Annelida Arthropoda Chordata Evolutionary Milestone Multicellularity 2. Jellyfish, coral Tissues 3. Flatworms Bilateral symmetry 4. Roundworms Pseudocoelom (An internal body cavity of some primitive invertebrates, similar to a coelom but lacking a mesodermal lining.) 5. Clams, squid, snails Coelom (the body cavity in animals, located between the intestinal canal and body wall) 6. Earthworms, leeches Segmentation 7. Insects, spiders, crustaceans Jointed appendages 8. Starfish, sea urchins Deuterostomes (animals in which the first opening in the embryo becomes the anus during embryonic development) 9. Vertebrates Notochord Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________ ANIMAL CLASSES CLASS: Amphibians Fish Birds Mammals Reptiles Class 1. Examples Frog, salamander Characteristics Ectotherms (controls body temperature through external means) 2. Alligator, lizard, crocodile, snake, turtle Lay eggs in water Adult breathes air Must maintain most skin Ectotherms (controls body temperature through external means) Four appendages (or have ancestors with four appendages) 3. 4. Lay eggs on land (except some snakes) Perch, catfish, Aquatic ectotherms trout, salmon Bodies covered with scales Breathe with gills Have fins Lay eggs in water Endotherms (warm blooded-controls body Blue jay, robin, cardinal, eagle, hawk 5. Cat, dog, human, bat, mouse, rat, zebra temperature through internal means) Body covered with feathers Wings Lay eggs Endotherms Body covered with hair Mammary (milk) glands Breathe air Have three middle-ear bones Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________ PLANT TISSUES Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma Cell/Tissue Type Dermal Tissues Vascular Tissues Ground Tissues Meristematic Tissues Characteristics/Structure Most abundant, found throughout the cell, spherical, thin & flexible cell wall, large central vacuole (may contain sap), edible parts of many fruits and veggies are mostly parenchyma cells Function(s) Storage and food production Long cells, unevenly thickened cell walls, cell wall can stretch as cells grow, cells arranged in tube-like strands or cylinders, celery strands are collenchyma cells Provide strength and support for surrounding tissues Cell walls are very thick & rigid, these cells often die at maturity Strong cell wall remains after cell death and provides support 2 types: fibers and sclerids “Epidermis”-covers all parts of the plant (much like our skin), cells are tightly packed and fit together like a jigsaw puzzle, produce waxy cuticle Stomata— openings in leaf tissue that controls gas exchanges (found on green stems and surfaces of leaves, fewer on top to conserve water) Guard cells—control opening and closing of stomata Protects body of plant, waxy cuticle helps prevent water loss Stomata regulates flow of water vapor from leaves Root hairs (some have)—help absorb water and dissolved minerals Trichomes—hairlike projections on some plants help reduce water evaporation and sometimes secrete toxic substances to help protect plant from predators Xylem—4 cell types: tracheids, vessel elements, fibers and parenchyma, these cells die Phloem—cells are sieve tube members, companion cells and fibers for support, cells are alive Mostly parenchyma cells but may have collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells Phloem transports food (sugar and other organic molecules Xylem transports dissolved minerals and water Function in photosynthesis, storage and support Found throughout the cell and often associated with other tissues Cells in leaves and some stems contain chloroplasts Some cells in stems and roots have large vacuole for storing starch and water Regions of actively dividing cells Cells are differently shaped parenchyma cells with large nuclei Apical: found at or near tips of roots and stems Provide for cell growth Apical: allow increase in length of stems and roots Vascular cambien: makes new xylem and phloem cells Cork cambium: produces cells with tough cell walls Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________ ROOTS, STEMS, AND LEAVES In the blank, R= roots, S= stems, L= leaves _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. _____6. _____7. _____8. _____9. _____10. _____11. _____12. _____13. _____14. _____15. _____16. _____17. _____18. _____19. _____20. _____21. _____22. _____23. _____24. Absorb water and minerals Anchor plant Bundled or circular arrangement of vascular tissue surrounds mass of parenchyma tissue Contain vascular tissues for transport to and from stem Contain vascular tissues that transport water, dissolved minerals and sugars to and from roots and leaves Different patterns of veins Gases move in and out through stomata May have hairs to aid absorption Most are beneath soil Most have relatively large surface area that receives sunlight Often function as water or food storage sites (ensures long-term survival when water is scarce) Primary function is photosynthesis Short or long ;Thick and massive or thin and thread-like Size, shape and types vary greatly Some are adapted to store food Some are modified to release irritants when broken or crushed Some are woody (hard and rigid) Some carry out photosynthesis Support leaves and flowers Thin or massive Two types: tap and fibrous Usually above ground, occasionally below ground Water vapor is lost through transpiration, encourages water pulled up through roots Xylem and Phloem tissues are at the center USE THE INFORMATION ABOVE TO CREATE A CHART IN YOUR NOTEBOOK ROOTS STEMS LEAVES Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________ FLOWERING PLANTS REPRODUCTIVE PARTS A. carpel (pistil) B. stigma C. style D. ovule E. ovary F. stamen G. anther H. filament I. petals J. sepals _____1. The female reproductive organ of the plant (includes stigma, style, and ovary) _____2. Receives pollen during pollination _____3. Slender stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary _____4. Part of the ovary that usually has one egg; it becomes the seed after fertilization _____5. Hollow base of the carpel; contains one or more ovules _____6. Male reproductive organ of a flower (contains anther and filament) _____7. Tip of the stamen-produces pollen that eventually becomes sperm _____8. Thin stalk with anther at top _____9. Colorful structures at the top of the stem _____10. Leaf-like structures that encircle the peduncle below the petals Label each of the following and provide their functions: peduncle, sepal, petal, stigma, style, ovary, anther, filament Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________ PLANT RESPONSES Much like hormones help to regulate your body, plants have hormones that help them regulate their functions. Match the hormone to its function. a) auxins _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. b) cytokinins c) ethylene d) gibberellins Promote cell elongation Cause plants to grow taller; stimulate cell elongation Stimulate mitosis and cell division Speeds ripening of fruits and promotes breakdown of complex carbohydrates to simple sugars Plants also have the ability to respond to external stimuli. This is called tropism. Match the plant response term to its definition. a) b) c) d) gravitropism nastic movement phototropism thigmotropism _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. The growth of a plant towards light Plant growth in response to gravity (stems grow upward and roots grow downward) The growth of a plant in response to touch A responsive movement of a plant that is not dependent on the direction of the stimulus. These movements can be reversible if they do not involve growth. Name ____________________________________________ Period ________ date ____________ ECOLOGY BASICS Is It True? Ecosystems and Energy Flow Instructions: Read each statement below and decide if it is true or false based on your own background knowledge. In the blank mark “T” for True and “F” for False. Use the resources provided by your instructor to determine if you were right or wrong after you have marked all the statements as true or false. For any false statement, rewrite it to make it a true statement. 1. _____In ecosystems, producers are organisms that are autotrophic and generate their own energy. Consumers are organisms that obtain energy from feeding on other organisms or organic matter. 2. _____An herbivore is a consumer that eats only meat. 3. _____A carnivore is a consumer that eats both plants and meat. 4. _____A detritivore is a consumer that feeds on dead organic material. 5. _____An omnivore is a consumer that eats only plants. 6. _____A decomposer is an organism that breaks down organic material. Examples include fungi and bacteria. 7. _____A food chain represents many different feeding relationships within an ecosystem. 8. _____Each organism in a food web or food pyramid is said to be at a specific trophic level with other organisms that have the same feeding habits. 9. _____The graphic below is called an ecological pyramid. It is a graphical representation that shows the feeding relationship of a group of organisms and the flow of energy or biomass through different trophic levels in a given ecosystem. 10. _____When energy is transferred from one organism to the next in a food chain, food web or food pyramid, 10% of the energy is lost and 90% of the energy is transferred. Therefore, an organism at the top of the food pyramid has almost all of the energy from all the organisms below it. 11. _____An organism at the top of a food pyramid is a predator to all of the organisms beneath it. 12. _____As a result of biological magnification, predators at the top of a food web or food pyramid may have very low levels of dangerous chemicals such as pesticides and mercury. Rewrite False statements to make them true here.