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Quick Write
What are the differences and similarities
between Fascism and Communism?
Fascism in Europe
What is Fascism?
A political movement that promotes an
extreme form of nationalism, a denial of
individual rights, and dictatorial one party
Why Fascism?
Many European countries saw fascism,
communism, and dictatorship as the only
way to survive the economic problems
and instability.
Communism vs. Fascism
 Promote a classless
 One supreme leader
 Goal: Spread of
communism worldwide
 Karl Marx
 Allow for different classes
to emerge
 Goal: Devotion to one’s
 The wills of the country
over the people
Quick Write
What societal conditions do you think
there were that allowed for these
Totalitarian regimes to rise in the 1st half of
the 20th century.
 Quickly describe how they came to power.
The Rise of Mussolini in
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
What you will learn:
1.) You will learn the conditions of Italy after
WWI that made it ripe for a totalitarian takeover.
2.) You will reinforce your knowledge of fascism.
3.) You will learn about how Benito Mussolini
arose to power.
4.) You will learn about his reign as dictator of
Fascist Italy.
5.) You will learn about the beginning of the role
he played in WWII.
6.) You will learn about Mussolini’s influence on
Italian society and the world.
Problems after WWI for Italy
460,000 soldiers killed
 Heavy debt (wars are expensive)
 Britain and France did not give Italy
the land they promised in Treaty of
This is what got Italy to switch sides
Gv’t of Italy at the time was bad
 Rising unemployment
The Treaty of Versailles
Italians believed that
the T of V had treated
them poorly.
Italy had not been given
the land promised at the
Secret Treaty of
Italy’s foreign Minister
Orlando left before the
conference ended,
feeling humiliated.
Who are these men?
What is fascism?
A system of
government under a
Strong support of
the nation over the
Usually involves
terror, censorship,
and racism.
How does this
represent fascism?
Benito Mussolini
Mussolini began his
career as a journalist
where he started to
gain his own ideas in
what became known
as Fascism.
Mussolini gains power
Mussolini set up a
Fascist Party and
promised to solve Italy’s
Promised to rebuild
Italy and recreate the
Roman Empire
Organized armed gangs
called the “Blackshirts”
Blackshirts: Supporters of
Came to power in 1922 and was
appointed Prime Minister by King Victor
Emmanuel to prevent a Communist
Revolution in Italy
Why would King Victor Emmanuel want to
stop a Communist Revolution?
How does putting Mussolini in charge
accomplish this?
1922 March on Rome
to establish Mussolini and the Fascist
Party as the most important party in
 Mussolini said this at a party
"Either the government will be
given to us or will shall seize it
by marching on Rome."
Seizure of Power
Mussolini’s capture of power
In October 1922, 30,000
fascists marched on Rome,
threatening King Victor
Emmanuel III to give
Mussolini the power.
The king did not love the
former liberal politicians, so
he agreed to give Mussolini
the power
March on Rome, 1922
His leadership
Mussolini became Il Duce (ihl Doo-chay),
meaning the leader.
 He enforced fascism throughout his
He forced all the other political parties to be illegal
and he also got rid of the democracy.
His opponents were put to jail by his secret police.
The government took control of all the radio stations
and all the other Medias to broadcast only the
doctrines of the fascism.
Fascism under Mussolini
A couple of quick questions
Do you think people were upset by
Mussolini creating a fascist state Italy?
I mean Mussolini is restricting freedom, he is
terrorizing people through his secret police?
Most of the Italians in the 1920s30s supported Mussolini and his
fascist state!!
How do you think Mussolini was able
to gain and maintain this much
Government by Propaganda
 One
of the reasons why Mussolini
was able to gain support from the
people was the through use of
 Propaganda
= message such as posters
made to convince people’s mind,
sometimes with lies
Mussolini “Controlled Media”
Mussolini and his government controlled
all the multi-medias including radio, press,
newspaper and education to force people
to think that fascism was the right and the
best doctrine. (C in SCOOP:
Propaganda was also used to ensure the
national spirit for the people in Italy and
remind people how powerful Mussolini
Propaganda Posters
The poster on the far right shows the slogan by Mussolini.
It says, “Believe, Obey, Fight”.
Schools taught these 3 discipline to the students.
More Propaganda
Mussolini and Hitler
Mussolini was outcast
from the League of
Mussolini and Hitler
In October 1936 they
signed a non-military
alliance. Mussolini
signed a full defensive
alliance with Nazi
Germany in the Pact
of Steel.
Italy during WWII
Mussolini intended to
annex Malta, Corsica, and
Tunis. He wanted to create
a “New Roman Empire.” He
annexed Albania, straining
the military. His troops
were unprepared for the
German invasion of Poland.
Italy remained neutral.
Mussolini during WWII
Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
Republicans vs.
Germany and Italy supported the
Russia and many international
brigades supported the
Abraham Lincoln brigade from the
United States.
The nationalists won.
Francisco Franco became the
fascist dictator.
Guernica by Pablo Picasso
Painted in 1937 in response to the German bombing of the
Spanish city of Guernica in support of Francisco
Franco's Fascist forces.
It shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts
upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians.
*These theories, specifically Communism and
Fascism, are completely different theories that
are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the
same behavior
I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet
Union from 1922-1953.
What is Communism?
• based on theory by Karl Marx
• revolutionary idea of a political,
economic and social system that
creates a “classless society”
• state ownership and control of the
means of production (no private
• Soviet Communism or
was more of a totalitarian and
military state combined with
elements of communism
I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of
Italy from 1922 to 1943.
What is Fascism?
• intense nationalism and elitism
• totalitarian control
• interests of the state more important than
individual rights
• maintain class system and private ownership
Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from
the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority
consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax
I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or
dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
What is Nazism?
• extremely fascist , nationalistic and
• based on beliefs of the National Socialist
German Workers Party
• belief in the racial superiority of the
Aryan, the “master race”
• belief that all Germans should have
“lebensraum” or living space in Europe
•Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed
Germany’s problems on them