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Unit One (Chapter 1-4) THE ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR II
Student will know:
o MAIN Causes of WW I
 Militarism
 Alliance System
 Imperialism
 Nationalism
 The major alliance before World War I
o Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
o Triple Entente: France, Russia, Great Britain
 The major countries and alliance of WW I
o The Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire
o Allies: France, Russia, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, the US in 1917
 The major battles of World War I
o Battle of the Marne River: Stopped the Schlieffen Plan
o Verdun: very bloody and no land changed hand (Germany attacked France)
o Battle of the Somme: Great Britain Attacked Germany very costly no change in land
 The role of the United States in World War I
o Supplied Allies with war materials
o Military aid and morale at the end of the War
 The impact of World War I on the soldiers and Military leaders
o Shell Shock
o The war was very costly in lives
o War of Attrition
 The impact that WW I had on many of the European Empires
o Russia, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire all Collapsed
WW I helped bring about a communist government in Russia
o The problems caused by the War made things worse in Russia
o The people revolted and the Czar Abdicated
o The provisional gov’t was overthrown by the Bolsheviks
o Then a long Civil War in Russia
 The legacy of World War I
o People wished to avoid another war
 The major ideas of Wilson’s Fourteen Points
o Freedom of Seas, free trade, arms reduction, no secret treaties, fair adjustments of
colonial claims, League of Nations
 The major issues of the Big Four at the Paris Peace talks.
o Italy wanted land promised to them
o France wanted to punish Germany and weaken Germany’s military
o Great Britain wanted naval supremacy
o United States hoped to follow the Fourteen Points
 The major weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles.
o Blamed Germany
o Reparations
o New Map of Europe (nine new countries in Europe)
o Dissatisfied Nationalists
 The changes in the map of Europe after World War I
o Germany lost land gained from Russia
o Germany lost Polish Corridor and Alsace and Lorraine
o Austria and Hungary divided and lost much land to Yugoslavia, and Czech.
o Russia did not regain the land they lost to Germany
 The Economic repercussions of World War I
o Germany could not pay their war debt
o The war Cost $300 Billion
 The United States and Japan were transformed into major powers
Chapter 3
 The countries that turned to dictators to solve their post war problems
o Italy: Leader Mussolini
o Soviet Union: Stalin
o Germany: Hitler
o Spain: Franco
 Hitler, Mussolini, and military leaders in Japan sought to make territorial gains
o Japan: Gain areas of China, then Southeast Asia
o Italy: Regain the old Roman Empire around the Med. Sea, Albanian, and Ethiopia
o Germany: Living space, Austria, and then Eastern Europe
 The characteristics of totalitarian rule
o One party system (eliminate the opposition)
o Control Media
o Propaganda
o Arbitrary arrests
 The major events on Hitler’s rise to power
o Hitler becomes leader of the Nazi
o The Beer Hall Putsch
o Hitler writes Mein Kampf
o The Nazi Party gain support
o Hitler is named chancellor of Germany
o Uses fire in the Reichstag to force the Enabling Act
o Uses propaganda
o Hitler gets rid of the SA to gain support of the Military
o Then forms the SS
Chapter 4
 The aggressive actions of Germany, Italy and Japan that led to World War II.
 Japan (Military leaders)
o Invade Manchuria in 1931 (Railroad explosion) (kill gov’t official who question army)
o 1937 Japan goes to war with China
o 300,000 killed in Nanking
 Italy (Mussolini)
o Invades Ethiopia
o Invades Albania
o Aids Spain in the Spanish Civil War
o Rome-Berlin Axis
 The significance of the Spanish Civil War
o Germany practiced using weapons for WW II
 Germany
o Violates the Treaty of Versailles
 Rearms the Military
 Occupies the Rhineland
 Annexed Austria (Anschlus)
o 1938 Sep. Demands the Sudetenland (Munich Pact)
o 1939 Mar. Germany takes over Czechoslovakia
o Aug 1939 Sign the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
 Secret Agreement to divide Poland
o Sept. 1 Invades Poland (Over within 2-4 weeks)
 France and Great Britain declare war (WWII Begins)
o The Phony War (Oct. 1939-April 1940)
 Russo-Finnish War: Soviet Union wins, but at great human costs