Download 5.1 notes What processes change Earth`s crust? Objective: Compare

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5.1 notes
What processes change Earth’s crust?
Objective: Compare and contrast the processes of folding and faulting
in Earth’s crust
Some changes in Earth’s surface occur very suddenly. Some take
hundreds, thousands even millions of years to happen. Over time,
pressure in Earth’s crust can cause layers to bend, curve, or wrinkle.
This is called Folding. Rocks may crack underneath, but the layers stay
Upward folds are called anticlines, and downward folds are called
Pressure deep in the Earth can also cause rocks to break. A break in a
rock is called a fracture. When movement of rock takes place along a
fracture, it is called a fault. Faulting causes rocks to move up and down
or side to side a tiny distance. Pressure builds up and when it is
released, movement occurs. Four common faults are:
Normal faults:
Reverse faults:
crust below
faults along which the movement is vertical (up and down)
faults where the crust above the fault plane rises in relation to the
Strike-slip fault:
fault along which the movement is horizontal (side to side). An
example of a huge strike-slip fault in California is the San Andreas Fault. Movement
along this fault causes many earthquakes in the area
Thrust fault: fault that is a low-angle reverse fault