Download BROMELIACEAE

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Plant ecology wikipedia, lookup

Plant evolutionary developmental biology wikipedia, lookup

Seed wikipedia, lookup

Ecology of Banksia wikipedia, lookup

Liliaceae wikipedia, lookup

Leaf wikipedia, lookup

Plant reproduction wikipedia, lookup

Ornamental bulbous plant wikipedia, lookup

Perovskia atriplicifolia wikipedia, lookup

Flowering plant wikipedia, lookup

Monocotyledon wikipedia, lookup

Glossary of plant morphology wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
BROMELIACEAE
Epiphyte life form of the bromeliads - Mexico
Epiphyte life form of the bromeliads
Bromelia
perianth
Bromeliaceae
monocots
Current
Angiosperm
Phylogeny
Group Tree
for Flowering
Plants
Poales
BROMELIACEAE (POALES, MONOCOTS)
NUMBERS: 46 Genera, 2110 species
GEOGRAPHY: tropical (and subtropical) America (one species, Pitcairnia
feliciana, in tropical west Africa)
HABITAT: prominent epiphytes, but also terrestial plants
CHARACTERS DIAGNOSTIC OF MONOCOTS: herbaceous, sympodial plants;
vascular bundles in stem scattered, closed [no interfascicular cambium
developing]; tertiary veins without free endings, leaf base sh eathing; pollen
monosulcate, gynoecium three-parted; cotyledon 1; primary root present but
unbranched, not persisting.
CHARACTERS DIAGNOSTIC OF FAMILY:
Habit: rosette herbs and he rbs (rarely rosette trees and climbers)
Shoot often reduced (internodes extremely short)
Vessels throughout plant (missing from roots of some epiphytes, wh ich use
peltate hairs on surface for water transport)
Leaves spiral (vs. distichous), with broad sheathing base often seving as water
trap; terrestrial species usually spiny-edged
Indument includes wa ter-absorbing peltate scales sunk in ep idermal pit.
Crystalline Inclusions: sacs of calcium oxalate raphides abundant in all parts;
spherical silica bodies in leaf and stem epidermis
Inflorescence terminal racemes often with bright-colored bracts (continuing
shoots sympodial=axillary as in most monocots)
Flowers bisexual, mostly radially symmetrical
Perianth 3 + 3 tepals, more or less differentiated, usually tubular (but not fused)
Stamens 3 + 3 (connate or not, adnate to tepals or not)
Gynoecium 3-carpellate, 3-locular, with septal nectaries; many seeds with
helobial endosperm
Pitcairnioideae
(capsules, seeds
without hairs)
Floral anatomy of Bromeliaceae
including tepal appendages and
septal nectaries --Sajo et al. 2004 paper to
incorporate for 2016
Pitcairnia
Neoregelia flowers sessile in
center
Al Gentry photo
Walter Judd photo
Tillandsioideae
(capsules, seeds
with hairs)
Tillandsia with inflorescence
Tillandsia - typical habit (Chiapas, Mexico)
Tillandsia usneoides
Tillandsia as
decoration,
Chiapas, Mexico
Vriesia sintenisii
Walter Judd photo
Bromelioideae
(berries) Fig 1
(more
Tillandsoideae,
Fig. 2)
The pineapple - terrestrial, leaves with spines, fleshy fruits, inferior
ovary, and delicious.
Ananas bracteatus, an
ornamental
BROMELIACEAE:
MORPHOLOGY
AND MOLECULES
1 -superior ovary , fruits dry, seeds tailed
2 - superior ovary, fruits dry, seeds comose
3 - inferior ovary, fruits fleshy, seeds without
appendages
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
Bromeliaceae: Neotropical, with the
ealiest-diverging species in the
Guayana Highlands
Brocchinia and
Lindmania from the
Guayana Highlands currently stands as most
primitive bromeliad
Bromeliaceae: Neotropical except for one species.
Pitcairnia feliciana from
West Africa – the only
Old World bromeliad
Terrestrial to epiphyte transition in the bromelioids: early events
Puya
Andes-
Costa Rica
Bromelia - habit and fruiting axis
Santa Rosa, Costa Rica
The pineapple - terrestrial, leaves with spines, fleshy fruits, inferior
ovary, and delicious.
Ananas bracteatus, an
ornamental
Terrestrial to epiphyte transition in the bromelioids: tank and sepal cha
Aechmaea- beautiful, artificial