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Earthquakes ! Notes
1. ________________________ is the study of earthquakes
2. The _____________________________ Scale measures the amount of damage caused
by an earthquake.
3. The ____________________________ Scale measures the amount of energy released
during an earthquake. Each increase of one on the scale represents ________ times
more energy. So a magnitude 8 quake releases _______ times more energy than a
magnitude 5 quake.
4. The earthquake FOCUS is the ___________________________________________ and
is deep underground.
5. The _________________________________ is the location on the surface directly
above the focus.
6. A FAULT is the plane along which _______________________________________.
7. Earthquakes produce 3 types of waves: ____, ____, and _____________________.
The ________ wave travels almost twice as fast as the _________ wave.
The ________ wave can’t travel through liquid rock .
The ________ waves are sometimes called primary or push-pull waves.
The ________ waves are sometimes called secondary or shear waves.
The ________________________ are the biggest waves and travel only along the
The ________________________ are responsible for most of the damage an
earthquake causes to buildings.
8. When seismic waves travel through layers of the earth that have different densities, the
waves bend or ________________. This can cause _____________________ on the
earth’s surface where no waves are detected.
9. A ______________________________ is an instrument that records earthquake waves.
10. A ______________________________ is a paper print out of the shaking recorded by
the seismograph.
11. Although hundreds of earthquakes occur every day around the world, most
earthquakes occur along
12. One famous active fault line in the USA is the ______________________________
located in ______________________________________.
The Interior of the Earth NOTES
1. Undisturbed rocks on the surface of the earth usually show
2. Movements in the earth’s crust can cause rocks to become
__________________ or ______________________.
3. There are three types of faults. Sketch each one below and include arrows
to show which way the rocks have moved.
Strike Slip Fault
Normal Fault
Thrust or Reverse Fault
4. Seismic waves from earthquakes allow us to learn about the interior layers
of the earth. Describe each of the earth’s layers below:
Inner CORE
Outer CORE
5. The _________________ consists of the crust and the upper (rigid) ______.
6. The _________________ is where convection currents occur in the ______.