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Earthquakes ! Notes 1. ________________________ is the study of earthquakes 2. The _____________________________ Scale measures the amount of damage caused by an earthquake. 3. The ____________________________ Scale measures the amount of energy released during an earthquake. Each increase of one on the scale represents ________ times more energy. So a magnitude 8 quake releases _______ times more energy than a magnitude 5 quake. 4. The earthquake FOCUS is the ___________________________________________ and is deep underground. 5. The _________________________________ is the location on the surface directly above the focus. 6. A FAULT is the plane along which _______________________________________. 7. Earthquakes produce 3 types of waves: ____, ____, and _____________________. The ________ wave travels almost twice as fast as the _________ wave. The ________ wave can’t travel through liquid rock . The ________ waves are sometimes called primary or push-pull waves. The ________ waves are sometimes called secondary or shear waves. The ________________________ are the biggest waves and travel only along the surface. The ________________________ are responsible for most of the damage an earthquake causes to buildings. 8. When seismic waves travel through layers of the earth that have different densities, the waves bend or ________________. This can cause _____________________ on the earth’s surface where no waves are detected. 9. A ______________________________ is an instrument that records earthquake waves. 10. A ______________________________ is a paper print out of the shaking recorded by the seismograph. 11. Although hundreds of earthquakes occur every day around the world, most earthquakes occur along ______________________________________________________________________. 12. One famous active fault line in the USA is the ______________________________ located in ______________________________________. The Interior of the Earth NOTES 1. Undisturbed rocks on the surface of the earth usually show ___________________________________________. 2. Movements in the earth’s crust can cause rocks to become __________________ or ______________________. 3. There are three types of faults. Sketch each one below and include arrows to show which way the rocks have moved. Strike Slip Fault Normal Fault Thrust or Reverse Fault 4. Seismic waves from earthquakes allow us to learn about the interior layers of the earth. Describe each of the earth’s layers below: CRUST MANTLE Inner CORE Outer CORE 5. The _________________ consists of the crust and the upper (rigid) ______. 6. The _________________ is where convection currents occur in the ______.