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Content Benchmark L.8.C.3 Students will evaluate how changes in environments can be beneficial or harmful E/S Sample Test Questions 1st Item Specification: Predict the beneficial and harmful results of a large change in an ecosystem. Depth of Knowledge Level 1 1. If a fire destroys a forest community, over time the number of different kinds of species that will move into the ecosystem will A. increase. B. decrease. C. stay the same. D. decrease then increase. 2. What is a possible benefit of an organism becoming extinct? A. Many other organisms will become extinct. B. There will be more food for competing organisms. C. There will be less food for competing organisms. D. Less resources will be available for humans. Depth of Knowledge Level 2 3. Use the line graph below to answer the following question. A population of coyotes has been introduced into an area. Rabbits naturally exist in the area and are prey to coyotes. What will happen to the population of rabbits during the same time period above? A. B. C. D. Increase then decrease Decrease then become stable Decrease until the rabbits are extinct Increase then become stable 4. Forest fires are important to an ecosystem because they A. destroy many different types of species so that other species can move in. B. make humans stay away from the forest so they do not cause damage. C. clear the forest of debris and return nutrients to the forest floor. D. make it necessary for animals to find new homes and not stay in one place. 2nd Item Specification: Understand that ecosystems include both living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) elements. Depth of Knowledge Level 1 5. Which of the following is a biotic factor that can be found in an ecosystem? A. Soil B. Temperature C. Plants D. Rocks 6. Which of the following is an abiotic factor that can be found in an ecosystem? A. Wood B. Water C. Bacteria D. Grass Depth of Knowledge Level 2 7. What abiotic factor is the initial energy source in most food webs? A. Producers B. Rain C. Bacteria D. Sun 8. Which of the following is abiotic but contains biotic material? A. Soil B. Precipitation C. Temperature D. Sunlight 3rd Item Specification: Given an example predict the relationships between living and nonliving factors and the types of organisms that can live there. Depth of Knowledge Level 1 9. What abiotic factors are primarily responsible for determining the type of organisms that live in an environment? A. Average temperature and amount of precipitation B. Concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide C. Soil type and amount of sunlight D. Number of predator and prey in the community 10. Which of the following is an example of a biotic factor interacting with an abiotic factor? A. A river flowing over a rock. B. A turtle eating lettuce. C. A bird landing on a tree branch. D. A fish swimming in water. Depth of Knowledge Level 2 11. The rainfall in an ecosystem has significantly decreased. How will the biotic factors most likely be affected? A. The plants will die and the land will be barren. B. There will be more competition for the limited resources. C. The animals will move away and all of the plants will die. D. The rocks and land will go through less erosion. 12. How will an extended period of overcast weather impact the amount of dissolved oxygen in an aquatic environment? A. Less sunlight will cause a decrease of dissolved oxygen produced by plants. B. Less sunlight will cause an increase of dissolved oxygen produced by plants. C. The weather will not impact the amount of dissolved oxygen produced by plants. D. The plants and animals in the aquatic environment will use less dissolved oxygen. 4th Item Specification: Understand that changes in an ecosystem can be the result of human impact or natural causes/processes and can be beneficial and/or harmful. Depth of Knowledge Level 1 13. Which of the following has the greatest impact on an ecosystem? A. Migratory animals B. Predation C. Human interference D. Competition 14. A town has passed a law making it illegal to hunt deer. A result will most likely lead to a decrease in the area A. deer population. B. human population. C. grass population. D. wolf population. Depth of Knowledge Level 2 15. What statement about insecticides is true? A. They only affect farmer’s crops. B. Insects are the only organisms affected. C. Farmers could not grow crops without them. D. They can pollute in rivers and streams. 16. A species of fish in a nearby lake has become extinct. Which of the following is NOT a possible explanation? A. Humans have introduced an invasive species of fish into the lake. B. Pollution from a nearby factory has entered the lake. C. The food supply for the fish increased in the lake. D. A drought has caused significant loss of water and territory in the lake. Constructed Response L.8.C.3 1. A local community has decided to spray insecticide to rid the area of mosquitoes that are making people sick. The diagram shows a food web of the area. A. What producer(s) and consumer(s) will be directly affected by this change? Describe how they will be affected. B. Will any other organisms on the food web be affected? How will they be affected? C. Based on your study, what are two positive and two negative tradeoffs related to the town spraying insecticide? Content Benchmark L.8.C.3 Students will evaluate how changes in environments can be beneficial or harmful E/S Answers to Sample Test Questions 1. A, DOK level 1 2. B, DOK level 1 3. B, DOK level 2 4. C, DOK level 2 5. C, DOK level 1 6. B, DOK level 1 7. D, DOK level 2 8. A, DOK level 2 9. A, DOK level 1 10. D, DOK level 1 11. B, DOK level 2 12. A, DOK level 2 13. C, DOK level 1 14. C, DOK level 1 15. D, DOK level 2 16. C, DOK level 2 Constructed Response L.8.C.3 Score Rubric: Response addresses all parts of the question clearly and correctly. 3 points Based on the food web, the producer that would be directly affected by the insecticide is the cattail plant. The cattail plant will be sprayed with the insecticide and there will be fewer mosquitos eating them. The consumers directly affected by the insecticide are the leopard frog and the spotted salamander. They are affected because they will have fewer options when looking for food. This could cause a reduction in these populations. If that occurs, then the water snake, the egret, the fish, and the shrew also would have fewer options and greater competition of the available resources. The other organisms that eat mosquitoes would also be affected because the mosquitoes are now poisoned with insecticide. As the poison passes through the food chain, it becomes concentrated in the higher-level consumers. Benefits of spraying are that the population of mosquitoes would decrease and the town would not have to worry about the spread of disease. Costs to killing the mosquitoes are there are fewer resources available for the consumers that eat the mosquitoes. In turn their population could decline causing the secondary consumers to have fewer resources and causing more competition. 2 points Response addresses all parts of the question and includes only minor errors. 1 point Response does not address all parts of the question. 0 points Response is totally incorrect or no response provided.