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Prepared for UHS 2052 students at UTM Malaysia by: Siti Rokiah
Siwok
[email protected]
What is Nonverbal
communication?
Nonverbal
Communication
• Nonverbal communication includes
all behaviors, attributes, or objects
(except words) that communicate
messages that have social meaning.
3
What do you think?
• Knapp and Hall found that
most people rely more on
nonverbal messages.
• Nonverbal behaviors are 12-13
times more powerful in impact
compared to the
accompanying verbal
message.
4
What is the relationship
between
verbal and nonverbal
communication?
5
And, what is the
importance of
studying nonverbal
communication?
6
Nonverbal communication
has its special functions in
our communication
Functions of Nonverbal
Communication
• Complementing verbal behavior
• Repeating verbal behavior
• Regulating verbal behavior
• Substituting for verbal behavior
• Deceiving
8
Characteristics of nonverbal
communication
• Occurs constantly
• Depends on context
• More believable than verbal
• A primary means of expression
• Related to culture
• Ambiguous, abstract and arbitrary
9
Types of Nonverbal Communication
• Facial expression, body
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
movement (kinesics)
Physical characteristics
Touch
Space
Time
Paralanguage
Silence
Smell
Artifacts
Environment
10
Kinesics and oculesics
• Kinesics is sometimes called body
language, is any movement fo the face
or body that communicates a message.
• ( Sieller and Beal, 2011, page 122)
• Eye behavior (oculesics) is a
subcategory of facial expressions.
Oculesics includes any movements of
the eyes.
Eye Behavior - Oculesics
• 45% of interaction time looking at eyes
• We establish relationships with our
eyes
• Eye behavior (Dale Leathers in Sieler
and Beall, 2011)
– influences attitude change and persuasion
– indicates degree of interest
– expresses emotions
– regulates interaction
– indicates power and status
– forms impressions in others
12
Facial Expressions
Facial management
techniques
– Intensifying
– Deintensifying
– Neutralizing
– Masking
13
Body Movements
Categories
• Emblems
• Illustrators
• Regulators
• Affect displays
• Adaptors
Note: Some body movements may be
classified under more than one category
14
Physical Characteristics
Body type, attractiveness, height, weight,
hair color, skin tone
What is the role of physical appearance in
communication in our culture?
How does physical attractiveness
influence communication?
15
Touch - Haptics
• Functional – professional touch
• Social – polite touch
• Friendship – warmth touch
• Love – intimacy touch
• Sexual – arousal touch
16
Space - Proxemics
• Proximity Zones
– Intimate: 0-18”
– Personal: 18” - 4’
– Social: 4’-12’
– Public: 12’ plus
• Territoriality is an aspect of proxemics which explains the
need for us to identify certain amount of space as our
own. To declare our space we use objects such as books
or pencils etc.
17
Time - Chronemics
• Chronemics is the study of how people
perceive, structure, and use time as
communication
• Chronemics includes, how we manage our
time, time expectations related to other
people and people’s approach to time.
• Some people have these time approaches
– Looking to the future
– Living in the present
– Longing for the past
18
Paralanguage - Vocalics
• We used more than the words themselves
for interpretation of messages
• Paralanguage or vocalics is the way people
vocalise the words when they speak.
• Vocalics include speech sounds, speech
rate, accents, articulations, pronounciations,
groans, yawns, counghs, laughter, crying
and vocal fillers such as “um”, “aaa”, “you
know” etc.
19
Paralanguage - Vocalics
• The use of vocal fillers is usually
through out the entire speech and is
usually done without thinking by the
speaker. It may reflect nervousness, a
particular subculture or a personal
habit.
• Vocal fillers can influence our image
What about silence?
Silence
• What role does silence play in communication?
• How comfortable are we with silence in our
culture?
• Silence or vocal pauses are very powerful way
to convey messages.
• Vocal pauses or hesitations are shorter than
silence. Silence refers to an extented period of
time without sound.
22
Smell - Olfactics
•
•
What about smell?
Does smell can be part of non-verbal
communication?
23
Artifacts
• Artifacts are personal adornments or
possessions that communicate information
about a person
• Clothes, perfume, makeup, eyeglasses,
hairstyles, beards, autos, etc.
• Artifacts should be consistent with and reinforce
our intended messages.
24
Environment
• Psychological and physical surroundings
in which communication occurs
• Furniture, architectural design, lighting
conditions, temperature, smell, colors,
sounds of the location, and the attitudes
and perceptions of the participants.
• The best environment allows a speaker’s
intended message to be delivered
accurately.
25
Is nonverbal
communication the
“absolute” truth?
Reveals all?
Interpreting Nonverbal
Communication
Why do we have such difficulty interpreting
nonverbals?
– Nonverbal cues have multiple meanings
– Nonverbal cues are interdependent
– Nonverbal cues are subtle
27
How do we improve our nonverbal
communication effectiveness?
• Be observant of nonverbal messages
• Don’t jump to conclusions
• Use descriptive feedback
• Practice self-monitoring
28
Points to consider
• If verbal and nonverbal contradict, people
believe nonverbal: reflect and consider your
nonverbal communication
• If you are the audience: think of what your
nonverbal communication says to the speaker
• If your are the speaker: read your audience and
adapt
• Since so much communicative meaning is
transmitted through nonverbal behaviors –
consider the implication!
29
Main References:
• Seiler, W. J and Beall, M. L ( 2011).
Communication. Making Connections ( 8th ed).
Boston: Pearson
• Verderber, R. F., and Verderber, K.S. ( 2005).
Communicate! (11th. Ed). Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth.
• Connecting through nonverbal communication
slides. (2008). Allyn and Bacon powerpoint slides.
• http://cobweb2.louisville.edu/faculty/regbruce/bruc
e//mgmtwebs/commun_f98/Verbal.htm