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Transcript
PREPOSITION and HELPING VERB Help Sheet
Definition of preposition: A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between its object
and some other word in the sentence. Every preposition must have an object to complete the
phrase. The object will be either a noun or a pronoun. Think of it this way – it gives added
information about something in the sentence – and a sentence is still fine without it.
Common prepositions:
as of
before
from among
owing to
about
above
across
after
against
along
among
around
as
as for
at
ahead of
alongside
amid
aside from
according to
as to
away from
apart from
because of
with
behind
below
beneath
beside
besides
between
beyond
but (except)
by
by means of
concerning
consisting of
down
during
due to
except
except for
for
from
within
without
Examples from A Midsummer Night’s Dream:
Thou hast by moonlight at her window sung,
With feigning voice verses of feigning love
“with” is a preposition. It’s object is (feigning)
“voice.” It describes HOW Lysander has sung.
in addition to
in front of
in
inside
into
in back of
in regard to
in place of
instead of
in spite of
like
near
next to
of
off
on
out
outside
outside of
over
on account of
onto
out of
past
prior to
regarding
since
subsequent to
through
to
toward
together with
towards
till
throughout
under
until
up
upon
underneath
“By” is a preposition. It’s object is “moonlight.” It
describes WHEN Lysander has sung.
“at” is a preposition. It’s object is (her) “window.” It
describes WHERE Lysander has sung.
“of” is a preposition. It’s object is (feigning) “love.”
It describes WHAT Lysander has sung.
Notice, if you take the prepositional phrases out, you still have a complete sentence: “Thou hast sung” (“You
have sung”).
Helping Verbs
Helping verbs “help” the main verb, by telling us either WHEN or under WHAT CONDITION the action
happens. When you find a word that may be a helping verb, look for a main verb somewhere in the sentence. If
you find one, you know that the two words should be next to one another!
Group 1: (time)
is
Group 4: (condition)
shall / shalt
am
Have /
hast
Does /
dost
Will /
wilt
Group 2: (time)
has / hath
Group 3: (time)
Do / doth
Group 5: (condition)
May / mayst
must
Was /
wast
Are / art
Had /
hadst
Did /
didst
Would / Should /
wouldst shouldst
Can /
Might /
canst
mightst
were
be
being
Could /
couldst
Watch out for when a verb is a helping verb, versus when it is a main verb:
Here, “hath” is the main verb:
Compare that with this use of “art”
This man hath my consent to marry her.
The man actually has (posesses) something.
Thou art not by mine eye, Lysander, found;
Scornful Lysander! true, he hath my love,
Here, the man has (possesses) love.
Here, “art” is a helping verb, modifying the main verb
“found.” It tells us that the subject “thou” is found by
something.
Here, “hath” and “hast” are helping verbs:
Here, “doth” is a helping verb:
This man hath bewitch'd the bosom of my child;
Thou, thou, Lysander, thou hast given her rhymes,
And interchanged love-tokens with my child:
Thou hast by moonlight at her window sung,
A time that lovers' flights doth still conceal,
In each case, “has” tells you the action is in the past –
he has bewitched her, has given her things, and has
sung at her window.
“doth” helps the main verb, “conceal” – telling us it
happens at a specific time (at night)
You’ll find doth is almost ALWAYS a helping verb –
when you see it, look for a main verb in the sentence.
Here, “wilt” is a helping verb:
Here, “art” is a main verb:
O, wilt thou darkling leave me?
Thou art as wise as thou art beautiful.
In this, the person is saying someone IS wise – this is a
linking verb. A linking verb says something equals
something else. Here, Thou = wise.
“Wilt” tells you that the main action, “leave” is in the
future – it means, basically, “will you leave me in the
dark?