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Transcript
Key Area 2.5
Growth and development
Starter Activity:
What does each of these grow and develop
into?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Apple seed
Tadpole
Kitten
Caterpillar
Maggot
Potato
Starter Activity:
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Apple tree
Frog
Cat
Butterfly
Fly
Potato plant
Lesson 1
Learning Intention: To investigate growth and
development of different organisms
Success Criteria:
• Be able to compare growth and development of
different plants and in terms of time scale and size
• Be able to compare growth and development of
different animals and in terms of time scale, size and
organ development
• Assess the growth of brine shrimp
What is growth?
• All living organisms grow.
• Growth involves making new cells from
existing ones by cell division.
• This will cause the size and the mass
(weight) of the organism to increase.
Growth and development can
take many different forms
…and different lengths of
time
9 months
about 20 years
Brain development
• Humans take a long time to develop
because of our large brain size.
• This makes us the most intelligent of all
the animals.
Brain development in the
womb
• During the 40
weeks of
pregnancy, the
brain grows
rapidly.
• Our brains
continue to
grow from
childhood until
adulthood.
(ml)
Brain growth
Examples of growth - plants
• Plants grow from a an embryo plant inside the
seed into a tiny plant called a seedling.
• This then continues to grow into a fully grown
adult plant.
• Some plants are very small when fully grown
and some are huge!
Examples of growth - animals
• Animals grow from a fertilised egg into an embryo,
and then into a baby animal.
• Some baby animals hatch out of eggs. Others are
born from a womb.
• The baby animal will then grow into a fully grown
adult. This may take a few days, a few weeks, or many
years.
Activity 1 - Growth in brine
shrimp
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Take a sample of water
containing brine shrimp from
the tank in a small glass
beaker. Put a little tank
water into a second beaker.
Use the wide end dropper to
transfer one shrimp to a
watch glass sitting on a piece
of graph paper.
Estimate its size in mm and
record in a table.
Put this shrimp into the
second beaker and select
another shrimp to measure.
Repeat until you have
measured 20 shrimp.
Results table
Length of brine
shrimp (mm)
Tally mark
Total number
1
2
3
4
5
6
Conclusion : Brine shrimp grow from ___mm when they hatch out to
___mm when they are fully grown.
The most common size of brine shrimp in the tank is _____mm.
Now draw a histogram of these results.
Lesson 2
Learning Intention: To investigate growth and
development of different organisms
Success Criteria:
• Understand the factors that can affect growth of
plants
• Understand the factors that can affect growth of
animals
• Understand the idea of a balanced diet and display
the foods which make up a healthy balanced diet
Growth in plants
• The early stages of growth in plants is called
germination.
• This is when the embryo plant uses the
energy from the food store to start growing.
• Germination may take a few days or a few
weeks.
Successful germination
• Germination will only be successful if
the seed has all the things it needs.
• What are the three requirements for
successful germination?
Growing healthy plants
• Seeds need water, oxygen and warmth to germinate.
• Seedlings and adult plants will only grow well if they have all the
things they need.
• What do adult plants need to grow well?
• They need water, CARBON DIOXIDE, warmth AND LIGHT.
• They also needs MINERALS (nutrients) from the soil like
nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium.
What if these are not
available?
• If a plant does not
get all it needs, it
will not grow so tall,
it may have less
leaves, or may not
be able to produce
flowers and seeds
to make the next
generation.
• In extreme cases
the plant may die.
Nutrient deficiency
• If plants do not get
the right minerals,
they will not grow
healthily.
• These leaves show the
results of lack of just
one mineral.
• Plant growers can add
fertilisers to
overcome these
problems.
Fungal infection in plants
• Plants can suffer from fungal infections which affect
their growth and development.
• Fungal infections are more common when conditions
are very damp or humid.
• Farmers and gardeners can use fungicide chemicals to
get rid of these infections.
How rice plants are affected
by salty water
Increasing salt in the water
• Salt can stunt
the growth of
rice plants.
• The higher
the salt
content, the
smaller the
plant.
• If rice fields
get flooded
with sea
water this
can happen.
Effects of air pollution on
plants
• Acid rain
caused by air
pollution can
harm plants
and even kill
them.
Effect of radiation on plants
• Over exposure to radiation – for
example the sun’s radiation – can cause
damage to plants. PLANTS DAMAGED BY OVEREXPOSURE
TO UV RADIATION FROM THE SUN
LOW RADIATION HIGH RADIATION
Human growth and
development
• In the same way as
plants, humans will not
be able to grow to
their maximum height
or weight if they do
not get enough food.
• We also need to get
the right kinds of
food.
• This is called a
balanced diet.
H&W
Balanced diet
• A balanced diet
contains the
correct quantities
of each of the main
food groups.
• We need lots of
some types of food
and only a little of
others.
• We should eat more
of the foods at the
bottom of the
pyramid, and less of
those at the top.
Fats
Proteins
Fibre, vitamins and minerals
Carbohydrates
H&W
Activity - Balanced diet plate
1. Use a ruler to
measure and find the
very centre of the
paper plate. Mark a
small dot here in
pencil.
2. Draw one line from
the centre dot to the
edge.
3. Use a percentage pie
chart measurer to
mark off segments of
the same size as
shown in the diagram.
4. Write the name of the
food group and % along the
edge of the plate.
1. Cut out the foods on the handout sheet
2.Stick each picture onto the correct segment.
3.Now colour them in.
•
Understand the factors that can
affect growth of plants
Lesson 3
Learning Intention: To investigate growth and
development of different organisms
Success Criteria:
• Know the main chemical food groups and their use in
the body
• Know about diseases caused by lack of vitamins and
minerals
• Know the effects on growth of starvation
• Understand the effects of harmful chemicals on
development of a human foetus
Chemicals in food
H&W
Our food is a mixture of many different chemicals.
These food chemicals can be split into groups. The
three major groups are:
 Carbohydrates (starch and sugars) which are used
for energy.


Fats which are also for energy.
Proteins which are used for growth and repair of cells
and tissues.
As well as these, our food also contains very small quantities
of vitamins and minerals for health, fibre to keep
food moving through the gut, and water for chemical reactions.
Food Groups
Food group
H&W
Use in the body
Carbohydrate
Fat
Growth and repair
For chemical reactions
Fibre
Vitamins and minerals
Vitamins and minerals
H&W
• Vitamins A,B,C,D and K are all very important.
The minerals we need include calcium and iron.
• These chemicals or nutrients are needed in
very small quantities, but are still very
important
• They help to maintain the health of the body.
• Lack of any one of these can cause illness or
disease.
Deficiency disease
• Lack of Vitamin C can
cause a condition called
scurvy which damages
skin and teeth.
• Lack of Vitamin D can
cause a condition called
rickets where bones are
too soft and can bend.
• Lack of iron can cause a
blood condition called
anaemia which reduces
the number of red
blood cells.
H&W
Not enough food
H&W
• People in some parts of the world simply
do not get enough food. This causes
stunted growth and serious health
problems.
Not enough food
H&W
• People who go hungry all the time are likely to be
underweight, weighing significantly less than an
average person of their size.
• If malnourished as a child, their growth may also be
stunted, making them much shorter than average.
• In developing countries, 1 out of 4 children younger
than age 5 are underweight.
Starvation
Development in the womb
• In order to grow and develop
properly, a human foetus needs to
get all the necessary nutrients and
oxygen.
• This is delivered to the foetus
through the placenta and umbilical
cord, and comes from the mothers
blood.
• A pregnant woman needs to ensure
that she eats a diet which supplies
all that her developing baby needs.
• She also needs to avoid taking
anything into her body which will
harm the development of her baby.
What substances should a
pregnant woman avoid
taking?
Effects of smoking on foetal
development
• Carbon monoxide in
cigarette smoke causes
less oxygen to get to the
baby.
• Nicotine causes less
glucose to reach the baby.
• These then slow down the
growth of the baby.
• On average, babies born to
mothers who smoke are
lighter than those of
mothers who do not smoke.
H&W
Effects of alcohol on foetal
development
H&W
Effects of drugs on foetal
development
• Drugs can be legal,
like paracetamol or
antibiotics. Other
drugs are illegal, like
cannabis and heroin.
• Any kind of drug can
harm a developing
foetus.
• The main effects are
brain damage and
limb malformation.
• Babies of illegal drug
users can be born
addicted to the drug.
Premature birth
H&W
• Smoking or drinking alcohol during pregnancy also
increases the risk of the baby being born
prematurely.
• Premature babies have health issues which sometimes
affect them throughout their whole life.
Video clips
•
•
•
•
Balanced diet
Vitamin deficiencies
Malnutrition
World food shortage