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Our diet consists of the food we eat
 We get nutrients from the food we eat, these
nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, fats,
vitamins and minerals
 Therefore nutrition is the term used to describe
how we get nutrients from the food we eat. The
process by which we get the nutrients is known
as digestion.
 In this Power Point we will look at macromolecules; their importance as well as sources.
 We will also look at a balanced diet which
includes water and fiber
 The
food we eat contain macro- molecules as
well as vitamin, minerals, fiber and water
 Macro- molecules are;
2. Proteins
3. Fats
 Carbohydrates
are necessary for energy
 Carbohydrates are broken down into smaller
molecules such as glucose, which the body
uses to make energy
 Excess carbohydrates are stored in the body
 Carbohydrates can be found in most sugary
food, therefore if you eat something sweet
you know it contains carbohydrates
 Not all carbohydrates are sweet, whole
grains, rice, bread and pasta contain
 Protein
are necessary for growth and repair
of cells
 Proteins are made up of long chains of
different amino acids that are broken down
in the digestive process
 It is these amino acids that the body use
 Proteins can be found in milk, meats, soya
and most dairy products
 Fats
are important to keep our body
insulated, to keep our cell membranes in
 Fats are needed in small amounts in the diet
as excess unused fat can be stored around
our organs and under our skin.
 Fats are also a source of energy, however it
takes a while to release the energy and is
only used when all carbohydrates are
 Butter, cheese, nuts, avocado, oils are high
in fat
 Vitamins
and minerals are needed in small
amounts and are very important for the
proper functioning of the body
 A diet that lacks certain vitamins and
minerals will result in deficiency diseases
 For example a lack of iron will result in
anemia, lack of calcium will result in weak
 Vitamins and minerals are found in fruits and
vegetables as well as other foods such as
milk and grains cereals just to name a few
 More
than 50% of our body is made up of
 Water is very important as it is the main
solvent for substances in our body, it also
helps with the movement of particles in the
 6-8 250ml glasses of
water a day
 Fiber
also known as roughage is the
undigested parts of food and is moved along
the digestive system where it is egested
through the anus.
 Fiber is important to help the movement of
food along the intestine.
 Fiber can be found in fruits, vegetables,
whole grain food.
balanced diet is a diet where we get the
required amount of nutrients that the body
needs to function properly in the correct
 A balanced diet means eating the correct
proportion of certain foods
Age – babies, children and adults require
different amounts of energy. A child is very
active compared to an elderly person and will
need more carbohydrates. Babies as well as
children will need a lot of protein for growth
 Pregnancy- a pregnant woman needs nutrients to
nourish her baby
 Lifestyle – an athlete will need more energy than
a non athlete
 Therefore a balanced diet depends on many
factors, that’s why dieticians create diet plans
for individuals.
 The
pyramid gives a general idea of the
proportion of the different types of food we
should eat.
 Remember a balanced diet varies on
different factors, therefore the pyramid will
Give the function of each of the following
What is a balanced diet
List three factors which determines a
balanced diet
Write down what you eat for the day and state
whether the following are present;
 Macro- nutrients
 Fiber
 Vitamins and minerals
 Water
From this determine which of the above is
highest and the lowest in your food and
whether or not you have a balanced diet, use
the food pyramid as a guide