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Transcript
LAYERS OF THE EARTH
• GEOLOGY – STUDY OF PLANET
EARTH
• INCLUDING SURFACE & INTERIOR
• GEOLOGISTS – A PERSON WHO
STUDIES INSIDE THE EARTH, TEMP,
PRESSURE, HOW THEY AFFECT THE
SURFACE OF THE EARTH.
SEISMIC WAVES
• VIBRATIONS THAT TRAVEL THROUGH
EARTH EVERY TIME AN EARTHQUAKE
SHAKES THE GROUND.
• USED BY GEOLOGISTS TO DETERMINE
THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH’S
INTERIOR
LAYERS
MAIN LAYERS:
INNER CORE
OUTER CORE
MANTLE
LITHOSPHERE – CRUST &
UPPER PART OF THE MANTLE
Layers of E remove sections
http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/plate1.htm
INNER CORE
• INNERMOST LAYER OF EARTH
• MADE UP OF SOLID IRON (FE) AND NICKEL (NI)
• UNDER THE MOST PRESSURE – WHY IT’S SOLID
• HAS THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE
• 12OO KM THICK
OUTER CORE
• LOCATED BETWEEN THE INNER CORE AND THE
MANTLE
• MADE UP OF LIQUID IRON (FE) AND NICKEL
(NI)
• 2250 KM THICK
• HELPS CREATE EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD – AS
LIQUID OUTER CORE REVOLVES AROUND
SOLID INNER CORE
WE THINK BOTH PARTS ARE
MADE OF IRON AND NICKEL.
BUT WE HAVE NEVER BEEN
ABLE TO PROVE IT.
COULD HAVE OXYGEN,
SULFER, SILICON ???
MANTLE
•LOCATED BETWEEN THE OUTER CORE
AND EARTH’S CRUST
•2900 KM THICK
•TWO PARTS OF THE MANTLE
•UPPER MANTLE AND LOWER MANTLE
LOWER MANTLE
• LOCATED BETWEEN THE EARTH’S OUTER
CORE AND THE UPPER MANTLE
• HOT ALMOST LIQUID ROCK – NOT LIQUID
BECAUSE OF THE PRESSURE FROM THE
LAYERS ABOVE
• 2250 KM THICK
UPPER MANTLE
• LOCATED BETWEEN THE LOWER MANTLE
AND THE CRUST
• INCLUDES THE LITHOSPHERE AND THE
ASTHENOSPHERE
• ABOUT 280 KM THICK
ASTHENOSPHERE
• LOCATED IN THE UPPER MANTLE
• SEMI-SOLID – LIKE SILLY PUTTY/PEANUT
BUTTER CONSISTENCY
• 180 KM THICK
• CONVECTION CURRENTS LOCATED HERE
THAT MOVE THE CONTINENTAL PLATES
LITHOSPHERE
•LOCATED JUST ABOVE THE
ASTHENOSPHERE
•INCLUDES THE CRUST AND 100
KM OF THE UPPER MANTLE
•MADE UP OF SOLID ROCK
CRUST
• LOCATED ON THE SURFACE OF THE
EARTH
• RIGID, THIN, LAYER OF ROCK
• THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CRUST
• OCEANIC AND CONTINENTAL
CONTINENTAL CRUST
• LOCATED ON THE SURFACE OF EARTH
• THICKER THAN OCEANIC CRUST BUT LESS DENSE
• MADE UP MOSTLY OF GRANITE
• CAN BE UP TO 40 KM THICK
• SCIENTISTS HAVE ONLY DRILLED 20 KM INTO CRUST
• EXTREME HEAT AND PRESSURE MAKE DRILLING
DIFFICULT
OCEANIC CRUST
• THIN LAYER OF CRUST BELOW THE OCEAN
• MADE UP MOSTLY OF THE ROCK BASALT
• THINNER THAN CONTINENTAL CRUST BUT
MORE DENSE
• IS LESS THAN 10 KM THICK