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Transcript
HINDUISM
ANCIENT RELIGION OF INDIA
ORIGINS
• ANCIENT ORIGINS – 1500BC
• MANY VARIATIONS; NO ONE SYSTEM OF
BELIEFS
• NO SINGLE FOUNDER
• VEDIC RELIGIONS ON INDO-AYRYANS
• GENERALLY TOLERANT/INCLUSIVE
ORIGINS
• NORTHWEST INDIA
• SINDHU(RIVER IN SANSKRIT) -> HINDU
• ENGLISH COLONIALS CALLED ALL IN INDIA
HINDU
HISTORY
• INDUS VALLEY PERIOD – 3000BC – 1500BC
• PUNJAB
• VEDAS = KNOWLEDGE OF GODS
HISTORY
• BRAHAMANICAL PERIOD 1500BC – 300BC
– GANGES RIVER
– BRAHMINS – COMPLEX RITUALS
– BRAHAMANAS – COMENTARIES
– SCHOOLS OF BRAHMIN
– BAHMINS = PRIESTS
HISTORY
• REACTION TO BRAHMINISM 550BC – 300BC
– BRAMINS -> GURUS
– GURUS TRAINED DISCIPLES IN BAKTI
– BAKTI = PERSONAL DEVOTION TO THE GODS
– RISE IN ASCETICAL PRACTICES
– HINDU GODS SHIVA AND VISHNU GAINED
PROMINENCE
HISTORY
HISTORY
• CLASSICAL PERIOD
– HINDUISM BECOME RECOGNIZED AS A RELIGION
– GROWTH OF TEMPLES AND HOME BASED RITUALS
– SANSKRIT GIVES WAY TO THE VERNACULAR
HISTORY
• HINDU-MUSLIM PERIOD 1200 - PRESENT
– MUSLIM TRADERS REACHED INDIAN BORDERS AT END
OF 7TH CENTURY
– MUSLIMS CONQUERED NORTHWEST INDIA BY 1021
– SOME MUSLIM LEADERS TOLERANT…OTHERS
DETROYED TEMPLES
– HINDU POET KABIR INFLUENCED BY MUSLIM
MYSTICISM (1440-1518)
– AKBAR – MUSLIM TOLERENT OF HINDUISM (15561605
– 1947 PAKISTAN – SEPARATE MUSLIM COUNTRY
SCRIPTURES
• TWO CATEGORIES
– SHRUTI = MORE SACRED
– SMRITI = TRADITIONS PASSED DOWN THRU THE
AGES
SCRIPTURES
• SHRUTI: “THAT WHICH HAS BEEN HEARD”
– VEDAS FROM THE AYRAN ERA
– FIRE CHANTS TO GODS
– “SACRED KNOWLEDGE”
– FOUR VEDAS – OLDEST AND MOST SACRED IS THE
RIG VEDA: 1000 HYMNS – COMPOSED IN
SANSKRIT ABOUT 13OOBC
SCRIPTURES
• SHRUTI:
– BRAHAMANAS: COLLECTION OF COMMENTARIES
USED TO EXPLAIN MEANING AND PURPOSE OF
RITUALS
– UPANISHADS: NATURE OF HUMAN AWARENESS
AND MYSTICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
BRAHMAN AND ATMAN
– “TO SIT DOWN BESIDE”…GURU & STUDENT
SCRIPTURES
• SMRITI:”THAT WHICH IS TO BE REMEMBERED”
– THE MAHABARATA: EPIC POEM OF 200,000
VERSES
– STORY OF WAR BETWEEN TWO FAMILIES OVER
INHERITANCE
– KRISHNA :AVATAR OF VISHNU, SUPPORTS THE
RIGHTEOUS FAMILY
SCRIPTURES
• SMRITI/MAHABHARATA
– BHAGAVAD GITA
• MOST POPULAR – BEST KNOWN OUTSIDE OF
HINDUISM
• STORY OF ARJUNA…BROTHER IN RIGHTEOUS FAMILY
• DILEMMA …PROTECT FAMILY OR BE NON-VIOLENT
• DISCUSSES SITUATION WITH HIS CHARIOT
DRIVER…TURNS OUT TO BE KRISHNA/BRAHMAM
SCRIPTURES
• SMRITI
– RAMAYANA
• PRINCE RAMA FORCED INTO EXILE WITH HIS WIFE AND
BROTHER
• THE EVIL RAVANA KIDNAPS WIFE AND RAMA GOES ON
LONG JOURNEY TO FIND HER
• FINDS HER, RETURNS HOME, AND BECOMES KING
SCRIPTURES
• SMRITI
– PURANAS
• STORIES ABOUT THE THREE GREAT GODS OF
HINDUISM: BRAMA; VISHNU; & SHIVA
• CONTAINS STORIES AND MYTHS ABOUT THE UNIVERSE
BELIEFS
• SALVATION THRU LIBERATION
• BELIEVE IN A LONG SERIES OF
LIFETIMES…REINCARNATION
• HINDUISM IS NOT IN A HURRY
• MOKSHA – RELEASE FROM ORDINARY, FINITE
LIMITED REALM OF EXISTANCE…INFINITE
BLISS
BELIEFS
• MONISM – ALL REALITY IS ULTIMATELY ONE
– DIFFERS FROM PREDOMINATE MONOTHEISM
– ALL REALITY…GOD; THE UNIVERSE; HUMANS; &
EVERYTHING ELSE IS ESSENTIALLY ONE THING
– “MASKS” OF GOD
– WATER ANALOGY
– BRAHMAN = COMMON ESSENCE
• IMPERSONAL WITHOUT CHARACTERISTICS
• NETI NETI…”NOT THIS, NOT THAT”
BELIEFS
• ATMAN
– ULTIMATE REALITY WITHIN
– SOUL
– BRAHMAN AND ATMAN ARE INTERCHANGEABLE
BELIEFS
• POLYTHEISM
– 330 MILLION GODS
– POINTS OF CONTACT WITH THE DIVINE
BELIEFS
• HINDUISM CHARTS TIME IN ONGOING CYCLES
• LONG PERIODS OF CREATION AND
DESTRUCTION
• UNIVERSE CONTINUALLY RECREATED
BELIEFS
• SAMSARA
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
WHEEL OF REBIRTH
REINCARANED FROM ONE LIFEFORM TO ANOTHER
MOST ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY NOT TRANSMITTED
INDIVIDUAL CANNOT REMEMBER PAST LIVES
HUMAN, ANIMALS, EVEN PLANTS
SEMI-DIVINE…TITANS JUST BELOW GODS
GHOSTS…JUST ABOVE HELLS
BELIEFS
• LAW AND ORDER: DIVINE PRINCIPLES IN THE
WORLD
– KARMA
– DHARMA
BELIEFS
• KARMA
– DETERMINES THE NATURE OF EACH
REINCARNATION
– MEANS “ACTION” OR “DEEDS”
– CIRCUMSTANCES AND SITUATIONS OF ONE’S LIFE
– INDEPENDENT OF ANY DIETY
– CAUSE AND EFFECT
– ONLY HUMANS HAVE THE WILL TO EFFECT KARMA
– HUMAN BEING A PRIVILADGE & RESPONSIBILITY
BELIEFS
• DHARMA
– ETHICAL DUTY BASED ON THE DIVINE ORDER OF
REALITY
– RULE OF LIFE
– CLOSEST TO COMMON IDEAS OF RELIGION
– FOUR SOURCES:
•
•
•
•
SACRED SCRIPTURES
TRADITION – PASSED ON THRU GENERATIONS
PRACTICES AND EXAMPLES OF THE WISEST
CONSCIENCE
PRACTISES
• PERSON’S DHARMA IS DETERMINED BY
GENDER, CASTE, STAGE OF LIFE
• WOMEN: EMPHASIZED OBEDIENCE TO MEN
– TO FATHER, HUSBAND, AND SON
– DHARMA LESS RELEVENT THAN FOR MEN
– WELFARE OF FAMILY
PRACTISES
• THE CASTE SYSTEM: DOING ONE’S JOB
– BRAHMIN = PRIESTS
– KSHATRIYA = WARRIORS AND ADMINISTRATORS
– VAISHYA = PRODUCERS; FARMERS; MERCHANTS;
AND ARTISIANS
– SHUDRA = SERVANTS AND LABORERS
PRACTISES
• CASTES
– ORIGINAL DIVISION BY COLOR: VARNA
– ARYANS…DID NOT WANT TO INTERMIX
– NATIVES SHUDRA
– THREE THOUSAND DISTINCT CLASSES EVOLVED –
OCCUPATIONS FOR MEN
– GUIDES FEMALE MARRIAGE RULES
– BASED ON HEREDITY
PRACTISES
• UNTOUCHABLES
– OUTCASTS
– OUTSIDE OF SOCIETY ALTOGETHER
– PARIAH
– GHANDI = HARIJAN= “GOD’S CHILDREN”
– THEY “DESERVE” TO BE OUTCASTS BECAUSE OF
THEIR “STINKING CONDUCT”
PRACTISES
• FOUR STAGES OF LIFE
– STUDENT
• INTENSE STUDY OF VEDAS & SCHOOL
– HOUSEHOLDER
• ARRANGED MARRIAGE…ADJUST TO FAMILY
• CAREER & FAMILY
– FOREST DWELLER
• BIRTH OF FIRST GRANDCHILD
• RETREAT FROM WORLDLY BONDS; SPRITUAL QUEST
– ASCETIC (SANNYASIN)
• DETACHED FRON SOCIAL LIFE; TRANCEND WAYS OF THE
WORLD
PRACTISES
• FOUR GOALS OF LIFE
– SENSUAL PLEASURE
• KAMA:PURSUIT OF SENSUAL LOVE WITHIN DHARMA
– MATERIAL SUCCESS
• ARTHA: MONEY; SOCIAL POWER; PRESTIGE
– HARMONY WITH DHARMA
• DEEP JOY IN LIVING WITHIN ONE’S DHARMA
– BLISS OF MOKSHA
RITUALS
• THREE PATHS TO LIBERATION
– KARMA MARGA
– JNANA MARGA
– BHAKTI MARGA
RITUALS
• KARMA MARGA: “THE PATH OF WORKS”
MOST PEOPLE – PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES
SOMETIME REFERED TO AS KARMA YOGA
LIVING IN ACCORDANCE WITH DHARMA
HOUSEHOLD RITUALS
PUBLIC CEREMONIES
SOCIAL REQUIREMENTS
ONGOING CONCERNFOR THE WORLD
ATTITUDE OF UNSELFISHNESS – “NO PATS ON THE
BACK”
– GHANDI
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
RITUALS
• JNANA MARGA: “THE PATH OF KNOWLEDGE”
–
–
–
–
–
–
SHORT BUT STEEP ASCENT
PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION
MUCH LEARNING AND MEDITATION
PRACTICAL FOR BRAHMIN CASTE
KNOWLEDGE OVER IGNORANCE
THREE SCHOOLS
• VEDANTA – MOST FAITHFUL TO MONISM; MAYA=COSMIC
ILLUSION
• SANKHYA – REALITY COMPOSED OF TWO SELVES
– MATTER AND ETERNAL SELVES - INTERTWINED
• YOGA – FREE FROM BONDAGE BY STRIPPING AWAY PERSONHOOD
RITUALS
• YOGA – EIGHT STEPS
– ABSTAIN FROM FIVE ACTS: HARMING LIVING THINGS;
LYING;STEALING; ACTING UNCHASTELY; & BEING GREEDY
– OBSERVE FIVE VIRTUES: CLEANLINESS; CALMNESS; SELFCONTROL; STUDIOUSNESS; & PRAYERFULNESS
– POTURE PROMOTES COMFORT WHILE DISCOURAGING
DROWSINESS (84)
– BREATHING PROPERLY – SIMPLE RHYTHM
– CLOSING DOORS OF PERCEPTION
– CONCENTRATE-EMPTY MIND OF ALL THOUGHTS
– EVER –DEEPENING STATE OF CONCENTRATION
– SAMADHI: TRANCELIKE STATE; SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS LOST;
MIND ABSORBED IN ULTIMATE REALITY
RITUALS
• BHAKTI MARGA: “THE PATH OF DEVOTION”
– LOVING REVERENCE FOR ONE’S GOD OR GODDESS
– GOOD FOR THOSE TO WHOM EMOTIONAL
ATTACHMENT COMES NATURALLY
– DIRECTS SPIRITUAL ENERGY OUTWARD IN
WORSHIP OF THE DIETY
– FOCUS ATTENTION ON GOD/GODDESSES, AWAY
FROM SELFISH CONCERNS
RITUALS
• THE GODS
– BRAHMA: THE CREATOR
– VISHNU: THE PRESERVER
– SHIVA: THE DESTROYER
– KALI: WIFE OF SHIVA- BLOODTHIRSTY, VIOLENT
DESTROYER OF ENEMIES; PROVIDES FOR NEED OF
HER DEVOTEES
BRAHMA
SHIVA
VISHNU
RITUALS
• AVATAR: INCARNATION OF A DIETY
• GENERALLY OF VISHNU
– KRISHNA – EPIC OF MAHABHARATA
– RAMA – HERO OF RAMAYANA
RITUALS
• DAILY DEVOTIONS
– VISITS TO TEMPLES AND SHRINES
– VENERATION OF COWS
• GHANDI: PROTECTION IS CENTRAL FACT OF HINDUISM
• REPRESENTS LIFE
• WORSHIP AS DIETIES; KILLING CAPTAL OFFENCE
– MAINTAIN HOME SHRINES TO DIETIES - PUJA
– WORSHIP THE GOD THE IMAGE REPRESENTS
– RIVERS ARE SACRED – GANGES MOST FAMOUS
• FELL FROM SOURCE OF VISHNU’S FEET ONTO SHIVA’S HEAD
AND OUT OF HIS HAIR
• RITUAL BATHS/ASHES OF DEAD
PUJA
TEMPLE/SHRINE
HINDU TEMPLES
INDIAN HINDU TEMPLE
BOSTON HINDU TEMPLE
HINDU TEMPLES
FEASTS & HOLIDAYS
• DIVALI
– AUTUMN FESTIVALS
– CELEBRATES THE RETURN OF RAMA FROM 14
YEAR EXILE – FROM POEM RAMAYANA
– FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS
• HOLI
– SPRING FESTIVAL
– CELEBRATES LOVE BETWEEN KRISHNA AND WIFE
– PRANKS –RED DYE & WATER
FEASTS AND HOLIDAYS
• LIFE CYCLES
– CELEBRATIONS CALLED SAMSKARAS
– SIXTEEN
– IF DONE PROPERLY, CAN WARD OFF BAD KARMA
– BETTER REBIRTH CAN BE GAINED
FEASTS AND HOLIDAYS
SAMSKARAS
• BIRTH
– WOMB-PLACING: PHYSICAL UNION BLESSING;
BRING CHILD WITH AN ADVANCED SOUL
– MALE RITE: 3RD MONTH; PRAY FOR MALE AND
HEALTH OF MOTHER AND CHILD
– HAIR PARTING: BETWEEN 4TH & 7TH MONTH
HUSBAND COMBS HAIR; LOVE & SUPPORT
– RITE OF BIRTH: FATHER WELCOMES & BLESSES
INFANT; TASTE OF GHEE(CLARIFIED BUTTER) &
HONEY
FEASTS AND HOLIDAYS
SAMSKARAS
• CHILDHOOD
– NAME-GIVING:WELCOMES INFANT INTO
COMMUNITY; GOD/GODDESS NAME; 3 TO 6 WEEKS
AFTER BIRTH. (SAME FOR CONVERT)
– FEEDING: FIRST TIME CHILD EATS SOLID FOOD,
USUALLY RICE
– EAR-PIERCING: BOYS/GIRLS HAVE BOTH EARS
PIERCED; GOLD EARINGS
– FIRST HAIR CUTTING: RITE OF PASSAGE FOR BOYS
– FORMAL EDUCATION: 1ST DAY OF SCHOOL; WRITES 1ST
LETTER OF ALPHABET IN UNCOOKED RICE
FEASTS AND HOLIDAYS
SAMSKARAS
• ADULTHOOD
– FIT OR PROPER SEASON: GIRL’S FIRST PERIOD;
HOME BLESSING
– BEARD-SHAVING: HOME BLESSING;1ST SHAVE;
MATURATION INTO ADULTHOOD
– SETTLEMENT OF AIM/WORD GIVING:
BETHROTHAL CEREMONY; RINGS EXCHANGED
– MARRIAGE: ELABORATE CEREMONY; LASTS FOR
DAYS; CEREMONIAL FIRE; VOWS EXCHANGED
FEASTS AND HOLIDAYS
SAMSKARAS
• FUNERAL RITE
– PREPARATION OF BODY: ELDEST SON WASHES,
DRESSES, & ADORNS BODY WITH FLOWERS
– CREMATION: FUNERAL PYRE NEAR HOLY RIVER;
FIRE SET AND GHEE POURED ON FIRE; PEOPLE
STAY TILL FIRE IS OUT
– SCATTERING OF ASHES: OVER HOLY RIVER NEAR
PYRE; GANGES POPULAR
WOMEN IN HINDU SOCIETY
• PATRIARCHAL
• DHARMA REQUIRES THEM TO BE OBEDIENT
TO MEN
• SATI
– THE BURNING OF A WIDOW UPON THE DEATH OF
HER HUSBAND
– OUTLAWED IN 1829, BUT STILL RARALY
PRACTISED
BINDI
Mahatma Gandhi
1869 - 1948
Mahatma Ghandi
“Great Souled”
Set standard for non-violent civil disobedience
Satyagraha: “the voice of truth”
Assassinated months after India achieved
independence from Great Britain
• Statues all over India
•
•
•
•
HINDU DEMOGRAPHICS
• 900 MILLION – 14% OF WORLD POPULATION
• 79% ARE IN INDIA
• 1,081,000 IN U.S. - .4% OF POPULATION
(2004)
• GREATEST US POPULATION IN NY - .6%
• MARYLAND - .4%