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Monday Prove It: The Four Pharaohs My Score: ______ / 6 points UNSAT (0 GPA) 0-2 points APPROACHING BASIC (1.0 GPA) BASIC (2.0 GPA) MASTERY (3.0 GPA) ADVANCED (4.0 GPA) 3 points 4 points 5 points 6 points 1. Which pharaoh is known as the great builder and strong military leader? a. Ramses II b. Khufu c. Senusret d. Hatshesput 2. Which pharaoh is known for increasing trade with Rome and Greece? a. Ramses II b. Khufu c. Senusret d. Hatshesput 3. What was the Pharaoh Khufu known for? Which kingdom was he ruler in? Came forth the king of the gods, Amun-Re, from his temple, saying: "Welcome, my sweet daughter, my favorite, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare, Hatshepsut. Thou art the king, taking possession of the Two Lands" – inscription carved into a temple wall 4. Read the primary source above. What can you infer about the Pharaoh Hatshepsut? a. the Pharaoh Hatshepsut was the daughter of a god b. to gain power, she told ancient Egyptians that her father was the king of the gods c. she was extremely religious and believed that he soul would find her father in the afterlife d. she united Lower and Upper Egypt into one land Monday: The Four Pharaohs Name of Pharaoh Accomplishments & Legacy ONE or TWO Most Important Points: Pharaoh Khufu: The Pyramid Builder The Pharaoh Khufu ruled from about 2551 to 2528 B.C.E., during the Old Kingdom period. Today he is best known as the builder of the Great Pyramid. Not much is known about what Khufu was like. Some stories describe him as a cruel, harsh ruler. Others say he was powerful but kind. Khufu helped make the Pharaoh the most powerful person. He kept strict control over how much food the peasants made. He controlled all the government officials who made the laws. He also declared himself a god. Khufu and other Old Kingdom pharaohs had magnificent pyramids built as tombs for themselves and their families. Khufu was the pharaoh who was responsible for building the Great Pyramid at Giza. It is one of the wonders of the world. Building the Great Pyramid was an amazing feat. No one knows exactly how they did it. They Pyramid took more than 20 years to create. Khufu maintained full control of the building project. He organized and fed thousands of workers. The completed pyramid was a stunning monument and shows how wonderful Egyptians were at building amazing structures. Accomplishments What is he remembered for? (his legacy) Which kingdom was he in? What is one more important detail? Pharaoh Senusret: Supporter of the Arts The Pharaoh Senusret I ruled from about 1971 to 1926 B.C.E during the Middle Kingdom. He was a strong leader who ruled a stable, unified Egypt. Art, literature, and architecture were really important during his rule. Artisans and craftspeople were really important during his rule. The Pharaoh controlled all of the mines in Egypt that were filled with gold, copper, and gems. Artisans and craftspeople made these materials into jewelry. Bracelets and necklaces were often highly detailed and were decorated with beautiful stones. Senusret’s greatest accomplishment were in religious buildings. He built and improved many temples, shrines, and religious monuments. The best monument from Senusret was the White Chapel. (A Chapel is a small temple.) It was made of white stone, and then a thin layer of gold covered it. Senusret wanted his memory to live on through his monuments. But almost none of his buildings lived on past his time. A later pharaoh destroyed most of the buildings he created. Accomplishments What is he remembered for? (his legacy) Which kingdom was he in? What is one more important detail? Pharaoh Hatshesput: Promoter of Egyptian Trade The Pharaoh Hatshesput ruled from about 1473 to 1458 B.C.E, during the New Kingdom. Hatshesput was Egypt’s first female pharaoh. Under her rule, Egyptian art and buildings were really important. She was also known for encouraging trade. One of Hatshesput’s greatest accomplishment was simply gaining power. Never before had Egypt been ruled by a woman. At first, she shared power with her male relatives. However, soon took over as ruler. Hatshesput strengthened her position in several ways. She filled her government with loyal advisors. She demanded the same respect as a male ruler. Sometimes she wore men’s clothing. She even wore a fake beard that was worn by male pharaohs. Artists were often instructed to portray her as a man. She also spread stories that her father was a god. As Pharaoh, Hatshesput increased trade with other countries, including countries such as Greece and Rome across the Mediterranean Sea. Accomplishments What is she remembered for? (her legacy) Which kingdom was she in? What is one more important detail? Pharaoh Ramses II: Military leader and Master Builder The Pharaoh Ramses ruled from about 1290 to 1224 B.C.E., during the New Kingdom. Called Ramses the Great, he is one of the most famous Pharaohs. He ruled for about 60 years, longer than almost any pharaoh. He is best known for his military leadership and for building many monuments. Ramses did everything in a big way. He had over 100 wives and more than 100 children. He wasn’t shy about glorifying himself either. He built hundreds of statues of himself all around Egypt. Some of them were 60 feet high. Ramses was a fearless soldier from a young age. He fought alongside his father in various battles. He was made a captain in the Egyptian army at the age of 10. Ramses also known for building incredible projects. The main project he build was carved into the side of a cliff on a bank of the Nile River. Four giant seated statues of Ramses framed the entrances to the main temple. What he built were the finest examples of Egyptian art. Accomplishments What is he remembered for? (his legacy) Which kingdom was he in? What is one more important detail? WALK THROUGH THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS Which pharaoh is this? How do you know? Is this pharaoh in the old, middle or new kingdom? This Egyptian Pharaoh was known as a famous pyramid builder. We do not know much about his personality. He is sometimes described as harsh and other times as gentle. This pharaoh was a strong military leader. This pharaoh was a master architect and builder. He built four statues of himself and is responsible for restoring the temples in ancient Egypt. He did everything big! This pharaoh was known for increasing trade across the Mediterranean Sea with Egypt and Greece. This pharaoh once had to share the throne with her male relatives before she took power. Egyptian art and building were very important to this Pharaoh. This person spent time and money on public works instead of on the military. Artisans and craftspeople were really important during his rule. Artisans and craftspeople made gold and copper into jewelry. Bracelets and necklaces were often highly detailed and were decorated with beautiful stones. His greatest accomplishment s were in religious buildings. He built and improved many temples, shrines, and religious monuments, such as the White Temple.