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Unit 4 We are going to start a brand new unit today. Before we get there, let’s run through Mesopotamia quickly. We started learning about the importance of geography. We know that Mesopotamia was the land between two rivers, and those two rivers were the _________________ and Euphrates. Since they Tigris fertile lived between two rivers, the soil there was ______________, which meant it was easier to farm on. Many early humans wanted there to be a flood, because this made the soil better. Since people could finally settle down, people started getting really good at different jobs, which was called specialization _____________________. People in Mesopotamia built __________________, which is where they believe gods lived ziggurats in. These could be seen many miles away. This is also the place where the first set of laws, called _________________________, wasHammurabi’s written down onCode clay tablets. These laws were tough, but they applied to everyone. Think, Write, Pair, Share Where would be the best place to live? Where would be the worst place to live? Why was Egypt protected from invaders? How is Egyptian geography similar to the geography of Mesopotamia? If I wanted to attack ancient Egypt, what would be difficult about it? Why is Egypt called “the gift of the Nile?” Job: The pharaoh was the king of Egypt. He had all the power and owned all the land. He was the head of the military, made all of the laws, and was the most important religious leader. In addition, many Egyptians believed the pharaoh was a god. Though the pharaoh was in charge, he had many government officials and priests who did the work of running the country for him. (Pharaohs were usually men, but a few (like Hatshepsut, Nefertiti, and Cleopatra) were women.) Lifestyle: Pharaohs often had many wives, and generally the pharaoh’s son became king after the pharaoh died. The royal family lived in great luxury, with jewelry and clothes made of the finest linen. They lived in the grand palace, but also had many other homes throughout Egypt. Job: Government officials served as advisors to the pharaoh. They helped make laws, and were in charge of collecting taxes from the Egyptian people living on the land. (Taxes were paid in crops, not money.) Important officials were often in charge of sections of the country or led sections of the army. Lifestyle: Government officials lived lives of luxury. Their mud-brick homes had many rooms – for business, entertaining, and servants quarters. They and their families wore make-up, fine linen clothes, and jewelry. They often had banquets with beer, wine, ducks, sheep, goats, dates, and figs. Job: Priests and priestesses held places of great honor in Egyptian society. They served as religious advisors to the pharaoh and performed ceremonies at temples, festivals, and funerals. On a daily basis, they worked in temples taking care of the statues that honored each god or goddess. They also oversaw the whole process of making mummies, to ensure that each person’s soul made it to the afterlife. Lifestyle: It was common for both men and women to be priests. They were allowed to marry and have children, and generally lived in very nice homes. Job: The scribes were in a slightly lower class than the priests and government officials. They worked for the government as the official writers and record keepers. They told the pharaoh about what was happening in his country. They kept records of the grain supply, taxes, and court cases. Lifestyle: Scribes spent 12 years learning more than 700 symbols in the Egyptian writing system, hieroglyphics. Schools for scribes were very strict, and beatings for laziness or not paying attention were common. However, once done with school scribes were respected and fairly well paid. Job: The artisans were the carpenters, jewelers, metalworkers, painters, potters, basketmakers, and stone carvers. They usually worked under the eye of a boss in workshops, making tools, furniture, linen cloth, jewelry, and stone statues. Pharaohs asked hundreds of artisans at a time to work on the statues and paintings for tombs, temples, pyramids, and monuments they were building. Lifestyle: The artisans rarely got the respect they deserved – even the most talented were not allowed to sign their work, because people in the upper classes viewed them as common workers. They usually worked for 9 days in a row before getting a day off. They lived in small, threeroom houses and sometimes went without food when it was hard to find work. Job: The peasants were at the bottom of the social Lifestyle: The peasants lived in simple pyramid, even though everyone depended on them. homes with furniture. They atefood. Theybrick grew the crops thatlittle supplied everyone with andusing bread, but rarely like the Theyfish farmed a plow pulledate by meat cows. There were classes. They often worked for 9 and threeupper seasons in Egypt, and during the planting th day. days straight andworked rested on harvesting seasons they in the the 10 fields. During They had to pay their cropsthe (not the summer season when thetaxes Nile in flooded farmlands, they worked the pharaoh struggling to money), and were for beaten buy government build monuments Some officials if theyand werepyramids. not able to pay.peasants were actually slaves captured from other countries and put to work on the pharaoh’s pyramid building projects. Directions: Write a journal entry describing your life and how you feel about it. Fill up all of the lines! First, look at the notes you took today in class, and then think about the following as you write: What do you do? What do you like/dislike about your job? How much power and respect do you have in Egyptian society? What is your lifestyle like?