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YouTube: The Old Kingdom
The Old Kingdom
Egypt was first made of two kingdoms
 Upper and Lower
 Upper-Southern Nile River Valley
 Lower-Northern Delta
Menes was king of Upper Egypt
 He led his army from the Southern Valley
into Lower Egypt
 Conquered the Lower Kingdom and married
a princess
The Old Kingdom
His marriage united the kingdoms
 He wore two crowns, the Upper and
Lower crowns
 High White one from the south (Upper)
 Low red one from the north (Lower)
Menes declared a new capital of Egypt
in Memphis
 Border city
The Double Crown
Old Kingdom
2600 BCE, the Old Kingdom arose (500
 Cities were centers of religion and
 City centers housed Kings, priests,
government officials, and artisans
Many Egyptians did not live in the city,
but large estates on the Nile banks.
 Rich owners had gardens and pools
Home of the Rich
The homes had many paintings
depicting daily life
 Family, servants and artisans lived there
 Artisan were hired to build boats, weave
linen, and make tools/pottery
Egyptian Farmers
Most Egyptians did not live in the center
of the city or on the banks of the Nile.
 Most lived on the rich estates as farmers
Homes made of reed and mud, and later
sun-baked brick.
 Had one room, palm leave roof and built
on high ground to avoid flood waters
 Worked fields, built monuments, dug
ditches, and repaired roads
The Pharaoh
Pharaoh is a king
 Meaning “great house”
Pharaoh was ruler, priest, and a god
 Center of life and ruled on earth as
god’s ruled in heaven
 Owned all land, often gave as a gift to
the rich
 Maintained the land, kept up with it to
make sure it could produce
The Pharaoh
Made sure canals were made and
 Developed granaries to house the grain
so people would not starve if a bad
 Elected all officials
 Taxed and issued building permits, trade
went through Pharaoh first
 Word of Pharaoh was law
The Pharaoh
People believed fate of Egypt depended
on Pharaoh’s actions
 Carried out rituals to ensure good
 Treated with respect, flutes were played
when he appeared
 Bowed and smelled the earth, or
brought head to ground
YouTube Video: The Pyramids
The Pyramids
Pyramids were built out of respect for
the Pharaoh’s.
 Pyramids were great tombs built for
Pharaoh’s as “Houses of Eternity”
 Built in west to avoid flood waters
 Built to protect Pharaoh and his
 EVERYTHING was placed in tomb
The Pyramids
Making the Pyramids
Farmers worked on them for the 3
summer months (flooded fields)
 Used copper tools to cut granite and
limestone blocks that were shipped
down the Nile from the quarries
 After unloaded workers brought them to
building site and dragged the blocks up
ramps to create the layers
YouTube Video: Making the
Making the Pyramids
Religious Beliefs
Believed in many god’s
 River God Hapi and Sun God Re were
most important
 River brought water and fertile soil and sun
grows crops
Osiris is god of harvest and eternal life
The God: Re (Sun God)
The God: Hapi (River God)
The God’s: Osiris (God of
Egyptians used the technique of
embalmment to preserve the bodies of
the dead.
 First only used with Pharaoh to preserve the
body so the soul could live on and watch
over Egypt
Body placed in wood box and covered
with natron
 Natron dried up water in body and shrunk it
Body was wrapped in linen
 Poor people were buried in sand, while
rich in tombs