Download BIO 218 F 2012 CH 06 Martini Lecture Outline

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

History of anatomy wikipedia, lookup

Anatomy wikipedia, lookup

Bone wikipedia, lookup

Anatomical terminology wikipedia, lookup

Body snatching wikipedia, lookup

Vertebra wikipedia, lookup

Skull wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
Chapter 6
The Skeletal System: Axial Division
Introduction
The axial skeleton:
Composed of bones along the central axis of the body
Divided into three regions:
Skull
Vertebral column
Thoracic cage
Introduction
Functional anatomy of the axial skeleton:
Framework that supports and protects organs in the dorsal and ventral body cavities
Protects special sense organs for taste, smell, hearing, balance, and vision
Attachment sites for muscles that:
Adjust the posture of the head, neck, and trunk
Move the thoracic cage for respiration
Stabilize the appendicular skeleton
The Skull and Associated Bones
Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull
The skull consists of
Face
Cranium
Associated bones
The face: 14 individual bones
The cranium: 8 individual bones
The associated bones: 7 individual bones
The Skull and Associated Bones
Posterior view of the occipital bone
Lambdoid suture
Suture between the occipital bone and the two parietal bones (superior skull)
Sagittal suture
Suture between the two parietal bones
External occipital protuberance
Bulge about midway of the occipital bone
The Skull and Associated Bones
Superior view of the skull
Parietal bones
Left and right parietal bones
Sagittal suture
Between the two parietal bones
Coronal suture
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 1 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
Between the frontal bone and the two parietal bones
The Skull and Associated Bones
Lateral view of the skull
Temporal bone
Mastoid process
External acoustic meatus
Zygomatic arch
Styloid process
Greater wing of the sphenoid bone
Squamous suture
The Skull and Associated Bones
Select features of the anterior skull
Frontal bone
Supra-orbital foramen
Zygomatic bone
Zygomaticofacial foramen
Maxilla
Infra-orbital foramen
The Skull and Associated Bones
Anterior view of the skull (continued)
Mandible
Mental protuberance
Mental foramen
Nasal bones
Frontonasal suture
The Skull and Associated Bones
Anterior view of the nasal cavity
Superior nasal concha (not visible in this view)
Middle nasal concha
Inferior nasal concha
Nasal septum
Vomer
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
The Skull and Associated Bones
Inferior view of the skull
Occipital bone
Foramen magnum
Occipital condyles
Basioccipital
Between the foramen magnum and the vomer
Condyloid fossa
Condyloid foramen (within the condyloid fossa)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 2 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
The Skull and Associated Bones
Inferior view of the roof of the mouth
Palatine process of the maxilla (anterior palatine)
Incisive fossa
Incisive foramen (within the incisive fossa)
Palatine bone (posterior palatine)
Greater palatine foramen
Lesser palatine foramen
The Skull and Associated Bones
Inferior view of the skull (continued)
Internal nares
Vomer
The Skull and Associated Bones
Inferior view of the skull (continued)
Temporal bone
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Jugular foramen
Stylomastoid foramen
The Skull and Associated Bones
Internal view of the skull
Frontal bone
Ethmoid bone
Crista galli
Cribriform plate
Cribriform plate foramina (olfactory foramina)
Sphenoid bone
The Skull and Associated Bones
Internal view of the skull (continued)
Sphenoid bone
Sella turcica
Dorsum sellae
Hypophyseal fossa
Tuberculum sellae
The Skull and Associated Bones
Internal view of the skull (continued)
Sphenoid bone
Optic canals
Foramen rotundum
Foramen lacerum
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 3 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
The Skull and Associated Bones
Internal view of the skull (continued)
Temporal bone
Carotid canal
Internal acoustic meatus
Petrous portion of the temporal bone (organs for balance and hearing are embedded in this structure)
The Skull and Associated Bones
Internal view of the skull (continued)
Occipital bone
Clivus (slant between the foramen magnum and the dorsum sellae)
Foramen magnum
Hypoglossal canal
The Skull and Associated Bones
Sagittal view of the skull
Ethmoid bone
Crista galli (anterior brain attachment)
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
Sphenoid bone
Hypophyseal fossa (pituitary gland sits in this fossa for protection)
The Skull and Associated Bones
Sagittal view of the skull (continued)
Occipital bone
Foramen magnum area
Clivus (slant from the dorsum sella to the foramen magnum)
Nasal cavity
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
Vomer
The Skull and Associated Bones
Sagittal view of the skull (continued)
Sinuses
Frontal sinus
Sphenoidal sinus
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Occipital Bone
Foramen magnum
Opening for the spinal cord
Occipital condyles
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 4 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
Articulate with the first cervical vertebra
Hypoglossal canals
Opening for the hypoglossal nerve that innervates the tongue
Condyloid foramen
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Temporal Bone
Squamous part of the temporal bone
Relatively flat bone of the skull
Mastoid process
Consists of the mastoid sinuses
Mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
Styloid process
Neck muscle attachment
External acoustic meatus
Entrance into the ear canal
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Sphenoid Bone
Sella turcica
Dorsum sellae
Hypophyseal fossa (fossa for the pituitary gland)
Tuberculum sellae
Anterior clinoid processes
Posterior clinoid processes
Optic canals
Openings for the optic nerves
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Ethmoid Bone
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
Superior portion of the nasal septum
Crista galli
Superior portion of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
Cribriform plate
Borders the crista galli
Cribriform plate foramina (olfactory foramina)
Openings for the olfactory nerves
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Cranial Fossa
Anterior cranial fossa
Consists of the frontal and ethmoid bones
Middle cranial fossa
Extends from the internal nares to the petrous portion of the temporal bone
Consists of the sphenoid, temporal, and parietal bones
Posterior cranial fossa
Extends from the petrous portion of the temporal bone to the posterior skull
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 5 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
Consists mainly of the occipital bone
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Maxillae
Make up the upper jaw
Consists of a left and right maxilla
Maxillary sinuses
Infra-orbital foramen
Openings for the maxillary nerve passing through the foramen rotundum
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Maxillae (continued)
Make up the upper jaw
Anterior nasal spine
Palatine process
Anterior palatine bone (roof of the mouth)
Incisive foramen
Opening for nerve and small arteries that innervate the palatal surface
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Mandible
Makes up the lower jaw
Head (mandibular condyle)
Articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
Mandibular notch
Coronoid process
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Mandible (continued)
Ramus
Angle
Body
Mental foramina (openings for the passage of nerves)
Mental protuberance (bony ridge on the anterior
edge)
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Orbital Complex
Made of 7 bony structures
Frontal (roof of the orbit)
Zygomatic (lateral edge of the orbit)
Maxilla (floor of the orbit)
Palatine bone (part of the floor of the orbit)
Lacrimal bone (medial edge of the orbit)
Ethmoid bone (medial edge of the orbit)
Sphenoid bone (posterior edge of the orbit)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 6 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Orbital Complex (continued)
Superior orbital fissure (opening for the following nerves)
Oculomotor
Trochlear
Ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Orbital Complex (continued)
Inferior orbital fissure (opening for the
following nerve)
Maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve
Optic canal (opening for the following nerve)
Optic nerve
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Nasal Complex
Nasal septum
Vomer
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
Ethmoid bone
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
Crista galli
Superior and middle nasal conchae
Maxillary bone
Inferior nasal conchae
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Nasal Complex (continued)
Ethmoid bone
Notice how the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
protrudes into the cranial cavity forming the crista
galli
Protrudes through an area called the notch for the
ethmoid
Superior and middle nasal conchae
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Hyoid Bone
Does not articulate with any other bone
The inferior portion is connected to the
thyrohyoid ligament
The superior portion is suspended from the
mandible via muscles
Stylohyoid muscle
Digastric muscle
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 7 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
The Skull and Associated Bones
The Hyoid Bone (continued)
Bony projections of the hyoid bone
Greater horn
Lesser horn
Body
Review of the Skull
There are 22 bones of the skull
Facial bones
Maxillae – 2
Palatine bones – 2
Nasal bones – 2
Inferior nasal conchae – 2
Zygomatic bones – 2
Lacrimal bones – 2
Vomer – 1
Mandible – 1
Review of the Skull (continued)
There are 22 bones of the skull
Cranial bones
Occipital bone – 1
Parietal bones – 2
Frontal bone – 1
Temporal bones – 2
Sphenoid bone – 1
Ethmoid bone – 1
Review of the Skull (continued)
There are 7 associated bones of the skull
Associated bones
Auditory ossicles – 6
Hyoid bone – 1
The Skull of Infants
Major features of the infant skull
4 major fontanel areas
Membranous areas where sutures will eventually form
Anterior fontanel (baby’s “soft spot”)
Posterior fontanel
Sphenoidal fontanels
Mastoid fontanels
The Skull of an Infant
Functional anatomy of the fontanels
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 8 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
Allow flexibility of the skull bones during the birthing process
These membranous areas are actually the dura mater of the brain, which is a thick membranous material
that helps to protect the brain.
You can feel the infant’s pulse in the area of the anterior fontanel. Blood vessels lie deep to the fontanel.
The Vertebral Column
The adult vertebral column is made up of 26 bones:
24 vertebrae
7 cervical vertebrae
12 thoracic vertebrae
5 lumbar vertebrae
1 sacrum (5 fused vertebrae)
1 coccyx (3 to 5 fused vertebrae)
The Vertebral Column
Functional anatomy of the vertebral column
Encloses and protects the spinal cord
Supports the skull
Supports the weight of the head, neck, and trunk
Transfers weight to the lower limbs
Helps maintain the upright position of the body
The Vertebral Column
There are 4 major curves of the vertebral column
Cervical curve
Thoracic curve
Lumbar curve
Sacral curve
These curves, along with muscle attachment to the various vertebral processes, help to maintain balance
The Vertebral Column
The developing infant lacks balance
They lack the proper curvature
They lack muscle coordination
The Vertebral Column
Special features of the vertebrae
Cervical number 1 is the atlas
The atlas articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull
Cervical number 2 is the axis
The axis allows rotation of the head
The ribs articulate with the 12 thoracic vertebrae
The lumbar vertebrae support the weight of the torso
The Vertebral Column
Abnormal curvatures of the vertebral column
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 9 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature
Kyphosis
Exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic region
Lordosis
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar region
The Vertebral Column
Vertebral Processes (Cervical Vertebrae)
Vertebral body
Vertebral foramen
Spinous process
Transverse process
Transverse foramen
Lamina
Pedicle
The Vertebral Column
Vertebral Processes (Thoracic Vertebrae)
Vertebral body
Vertebral foramen
Spinous process
Transverse process
Lamina
Pedicle
The Vertebral Column
Vertebral Processes (Lumbar Vertebrae)
Vertebral body
Vertebral foramen
Spinous process
Transverse process
Lamina
Pedicle
The Vertebral Column
Special features of the atlas and axis
In addition to the structures other cervical vertebrae have, the axis also has a structure called the dens
The atlas pivots on the dens of the axis
The Vertebral Column
Sacrum and Coccyx
Sacral foramina
Median sacral crest
Lateral sacral crest
Sacral cornu
Sacral hiatus
Ala
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 10 of 11
582705471
Biology 218 – Human Anatomy
Session:
FALL
Section:
52999
Days / Time:
Instructor:
Lecture Outline
Adapted from Martini Human Anatomy 7th ed.
MW 5:00 PM – 9:20 PM
RIDDELL
Coccygeal cornu
The Thoracic Cage
The thoracic cage has two functions:
It protects the heart, lungs, thymus, and other structures within the cavity
It serves as the attachment site for muscles involved in:
Respiration
Positioning the vertebral column
Movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb
The Thoracic Cage
The Thoracic Cage
Sternum
Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid
Jugular notch
The Thoracic Cage
The Thoracic Cage
Ribs (one type of classification)
True ribs: 17
False ribs: 812
Ribs (another type of classification)
Vertebrosternal ribs: 17
Vertebrochondral ribs: 810
Vertebral ribs (floating ribs): 1112 (no anterior cartilage)
The Thoracic Cage
Rib Articulation
Head
Neck
Tubercle of rib
Angle
Body
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Page 11 of 11
582705471