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BACKGROUND ON FORENSIC SCIENCE Locard Exchange Principle Four Main Elements to an Investigation First, the crime scene is thoroughly _____________. Photographs, _______, sketches and ______ describing the scene are made. Second, the __________ evidence is collected and ________ substances are sent to the laboratory for identification and _________ Third, the results of the ___________ ___________ of the physical evidence are compared to __________ statements. Finally, both witness statements and laboratory results are used to ___________ the investigator's ____________ until one remains Anthropometrics literally meaning "__________ __ ________"), refers to the measurement of living human individuals for the purposes of understanding human physical variation. From these studies, it was discovered that _______ existed between various body parts and the ________ of the person. In 1925 _____________________ invented the _________________________ microscope. ______________is the study of the ________ of bullets and their examination for _________________ ______________ after being fired. Examiners can use this evidence to match bullets or bullet fragments to ____________ ____________. Blood types – Percent of the Population O A % B % AB % % O+ % A+ % B+ % O- % A- % B- % AB+ % AB- % ______ provides a powerful technique for uniquely identifying the person or animal who left traces of body fluids at a crime scene. Indeed, this is the best method presently known for such identification DNA _________________: the process that separates DNA using gel and electricity DNA _________________: the process of testing to identify DNA patterns or types Toxicology: the study of __________ and _________ and their effect on human and animal populations. Gas Chromatograph (GC): a forensic tool used to identify the ___________ __________ of substances used in the commission of crimes. The questioned substance is _________ at high temperatures. The temperature at which this material becomes ______ is then charted to determine its makeup. Sir Francis Galton in ________, published his book, "Fingerprints", establishing the ___________ and _________________ of fingerprints. The book included the first classification system for fingerprints. Three main types 1. 2. 3.