Download Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion

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Transcript
Making Sense of the Universe:
Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity
How do we describe motion?
Precise definitions to describe motion:
• Speed: Rate at which object moves
speed =
distance
time
units of
m
s
example: speed of 10 m/s
• Velocity: Speed and direction
example: 10 m/s, due east
• Acceleration: Any change in velocity
units of speed/time (m/s2)
The Acceleration of Gravity
•Galileo dropped
cannon balls and
balsa wood balls
• All falling objects
accelerate at the
same rate (not
counting friction of
air resistance).
• On Earth, g ≈ 10
m/s2: speed
increases 10 m/s
with each second of
falling.
The Acceleration of Gravity (g)
• Galileo showed
that g is the same
for all falling
objects, regardless
of their mass.
• Demonstrated by
Apollo 15 Hammer
and Feather expt.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk
Momentum and Force
• 'Momentum' -- your total amount of motion
• Momentum = mass  velocity
• Momentum is 'conserved'
• A net force changes momentum, which
generally means an acceleration (change in
velocity)
• Rotational momentum of a spinning or orbiting
object is known as angular momentum
Conservation of Angular Momentum
angular momentum = mass x velocity x radius
• A net external twisting force (torque) must be
acting on an object in to change the angular
momentum of the object.
• Earth experiences no twisting force as it orbits
the Sun, so its rotation and orbit will continue
indefinitely
Angular momentum conservation explains why objects
rotate faster as they shrink in radius:
What is mass?
How is mass different from weight?
• Mass – the amount of matter in an object
• Weight – the force that acts upon an object
You are weightless
in free-fall!
Thought Question
On the Moon:
A.
B.
C.
D.
My weight is the same, my mass is less.
My weight is less, my mass is the same.
My weight is more, my mass is the same.
My weight is more, my mass is less.
Why are astronauts
“weightless” in space?
• There is gravity in
space
• Weightlessness is
due to a constant
state of free-fall
• How is mass different from weight?
– Mass = quantity of matter
– Weight = force acting on mass
– Objects are 'weightless' in free-fall
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Our goals for learning:
• How did Newton change our view of the
universe?
• What are Newton’s three laws of motion?
How did Newton change our
view of the universe?
• Realized the same physical
laws that operate on Earth
also operate in the heavens
 one universe
• Discovered laws of motion
and gravity (Philosophiae
Naturalis Prinipia
Mathematica – 1687)
Sir Isaac Newton
(1642-1727)
• Much more: Experiments with
light; first reflecting telescope
(1672), calculus…
What are Newton’s three laws
of motion?
Newton’s first law of
motion: An object moves at
constant velocity unless a net
force acts to change its
speed or direction.
Examples of First Law
Which of these has a force acting on it and
when?
• Ball on a string
• Inside planes and cars
• Drying
• Orbiting Objects: Satellites, planets
Thought Question:
Is there a net force? Y/N
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A car coming to a stop.
A bus speeding up.
An elevator moving up at constant speed.
A bicycle going around a curve.
A moon orbiting Jupiter.
Newton’s second law of motion
Force = mass  acceleration
Shotput vs. baseball
• If I throw each one, I put the same amount
of force into it.
F=mshot  a
F=mbsball  a
If the shotput is twice as massive how far
does it go?
Thought Question:
Is the object accelerating? Y/N
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A car coming to a stop.
A bus speeding up.
An elevator moving up at constant speed.
A bicycle going around a curve.
A moon orbiting Jupiter.
Newton’s third law of motion:
For every force, there is always an equal and
opposite reaction force.
Understanding Our Universe, 1st Edition
Copyright © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company
Thought Question:
Is the force the Earth exerts on you larger, smaller,
or the same as the force you exert on it?
A. Earth exerts a larger force on you.
B. I exert a larger force on Earth.
C. Earth and I exert equal and opposite forces on
each other.
What have we learned?
• How did Newton change our view of the universe?
– He discovered laws of motion & gravitation
– He realized these same laws of physics were
identical in the universe and on Earth
• What are Newton’s Three Laws of Motion?
– 1. Object moves at constant velocity if no net force
is acting.
– 2. Force = mass  acceleration
– 3. For every force there is an equal and opposite
reaction force